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Year 10 science revision

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Design, construct and draw circuits containing a number of components- (globe, closed switch, open switch, ammeter, voltmeter, battery or transformer) What is electricity? A form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current. What is a conductor? Materials that permit electrons to flow freely from atom to atom and molecule to molecule. An object made of conducting material will charge to be transferred across the entire surface of the object.

Metals like silver, gold and aluminum are good insulators as it ‘conducts’ the electron current or flow of electrons fairly easily. What is an insulator? Insulators have the opposite effect on the flow of electrons; they do not let electrons flow very easily from one atom to another. Insulators are materials whose atoms have tightly bound electrons. Some common insulators are glass, plastic, rubber, air and wood. What is voltage? Voltage is a specific measure of potential energy that is always relative between two points. What is resistance?

Resistance is a term that describes the forces that oppose the flow of electron current in a conductor. What is a current? The continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit. What does Ohm’s law state? Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. What will happen to a circuit if the voltage is increased? If the voltage is increased, the current must also increase R = VII What will happen if the resistance is increased?

If the resistance is increased, the current will decrease. What is a way of increasing the resistance in a circuit? Advantages and disadvantages of parallel circuits? If one bulb was to break, the others would continue to work, and the brightness would be greater than in series. There could be a risk of fire in some cases, if you have multiple power sources, the power stays at the same voltage as that of the single power source and increasing the number of output devices does not increase the resistance like in series. CAN BE USED IN HOME LIGHTING Advantages and disadvantages of series circuits?

You can add more power sources, and increase the force of output which grants you more power. It is impossible to control the bulbs individually, the more output vices you add the slower the current becomes. CAN BE USED IN A FLASH LIGHT 5. 6. 4 LIGHT ENERGY What does absorption mean? The act or process of absorbing, in this case absorbing light. What does reflection mean? The throwing back, by a body of surface of light, heat or sound without absorption. What does refraction mean? The bending of light as it passes from one substance to another. What does transparent mean?

Allowing light to pass through so that objects behind can be distinctly seen. What does translucent mean? Allowing light, but not detailed images to pass through aka. Semitransparent. What does opaque mean? Not able to be seen through, not transparent. Explain an everyday situation where absorption, reflection and refraction occur? Absorption may be used in cars, the darker cars absorb more heat, reflection could be used when looking in a puddle and refraction may be used while writing down notes from a overhead projector. Explain how light travels? 5. 7. 2 ELEMENTS What is an atom?

An atom is made up of three tiny particles called subatomic particles; protons, neutrons and electrons. What is a molecule? Molecules are made up of two or more atoms, either of the same element or of two different elements. What is the difference between an atom and a molecule? Molecules are former by the combination or two or more atoms and unlike atoms, molecules can be subdivided to individual atoms. What is the same about each element in a group in the the periodic table? If the elements are in the same group of the periodic table, it meaner they all have the same number of atomic orbital’s.

What is different about each element in a particular group? They have different number of electrons. Briefly describe each of the groups in the periodic table? Alkali metals – They are found in group 1, they are highly reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature. They are good conductors, malleable and ductile. Shiny, soft, silvery – sodium and potassium. Alkaline metals – They are found in group 2 and they are metallic elements, which are very reactive. Shiny, silvery-white – Magnesium and calcium. Halogens – They are found in group 17 and are non-metallic elements- Fluorine and chlorine.

Noble gases – They are found in group 18, and cannot form compounds readily. They all have 8 electrons in their outer shell, making them stable. Odorless, colorless, anatomic gases, low chemical activity – Helium and argon. Transition elements – Groups 3 through 12, they are ductile and malleable and induct electricity and heat. Paramagnetic, high melting point metals – Iron, copper. Metalloid – Found in the boundary that distinguishes metals from non-metals, they have properties of booth and example is silicon and tellurium.

Lanthanide – Compromised of fifteen elements, the second bottom row, starting from lanthanum and ending with Lutetium. Actinides – They are all radioactive; the metals tarnish readily in air, and combine directly with most non-metals. How does reactivity change in the periodic table? Elements at the edges are most reactive, and toward the top are more reactive too. The exception is the column furthest to the right, which contains the least reactive elements. 5. 7. 3 COMPOUNDS What is the law of the conservation of mass? The atoms of an object cannot be created or destroyed, but can be moved around and be changed into different particles. . 8. 1 CELL THEORY Why do multicultural organisms have systems? Different Jobs are done by different cells that are specialized egg, blood cell caries oxygen, nerve cells sends and receives signals and they all work together. What do all cells need to do? They constantly need inputs like nutrients egg. Glucose, amino acids, minerals and oxygen. What is the cell theory? All living cells are made of cells, the cells are the basic unit of life and cells arise from pre-existing cells. What features do all cells have in common? They all have DNA, cytoplasm, a cell membrane and ribosome.

Name the three reasons why cells divide? To help cells grow and develop, to replace old cells, and to help repair damage to existing cells. What cells are produced that are used by organisms for reproduction? What is the name of the structure on which information is transferred as DNA when cells reproduce themselves? They are called chromosomes. 5. . 4 HUMANS List the function of each of the organs in the male reproductive system? List the function of each of the organs in the female reproductive system? What is fertilization? What is a gamete? What is a zygote? What is an embryo?

What two systems interact to coordinate the human body? Explain the role of each of these systems, including what parts make up each system? Explain the words stimulus and response? Explain the role of motor, sensory and connective neuroses? Briefly state the three lines of defense? The first line’ of defense includes physical and chemical barriers that are always dead and prepared to defend the body from infection. An example is skin, hair in the nose and urine flow. If microbes get past your first line of defense, it is up to the ‘second line’ of defense, your immune system to keep you from getting sick or infected.

It is made up of many different cells, tissues and organs that are always patrolling your body and fighting any bad microbes. We call this ‘immunity The third line’ of defense is a specialized attack of white blood cells against pathogens when the first and seconds line of defense fails. What organisms cause infectious diseases? How may non-infections diseases be caused? They cannot be passed on from one person to another; instead they are caused by factors such as the environment, genetics and lifestyle. What is a disease? A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism; it stops us from our body functioning normally.

What does immune mean? Resistant to a particular infection or toxin. What is an antibody? A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. What does antibiotic mean? A medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms. What is a pathogen? A bacterium, virus, fungi, parasite or other microorganism that can cause disease. What is a microorganism? A microscopic organism egg. A bacteria, virus or fungus. What is the difference between bacteria and a virus? Bacteria are large unicellular microorganisms and viruses ar e a sub-microscopic particle that can infect the cells of biological organisms.

What is the difference between infectious and non-infectious disease? Non-infectious diseases can’t be passed from one person from another whereas infectious can. Explain the cause symptoms and treatment of one infectious and one non-infectious disease? . S What can you say about the atoms on one side of a chemical reaction compared to the other side? How do you know if a substance is an acid, a base or carbonate? Acids are a group of chemicals which in solution produce H+ ions. Bases are a group of chemicals which contain the oxides 02- or hydroxide ion OH- or which in solution produce the OH- ion.

What does a word equation show? How can you know a chemical reaction has occurred? Make a list of 10 chemicals using their common names and their formulae? What are reactants? What are products? What is an indicator? An indicator is a substance which in solution changes color depending whether the solution acidic or basic. How does DNA replicate? What does it mean that DNA replicates exactly? Why is it important that it does? What is a mutation of DNA? It is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene; it can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene.

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