In the first assignment, we talked about how company recruitment, training staffs, exchange basic and advance knowledge for, improve experience for them. These are very important step for the future success of the team. And with this assignment, we will go two projects of two teams to analyze the leadership styles of Mark and Forgan, analysis of these methods to motivate as well as improve the confidence to employees.
Evaluate theories and styles of leadership.
“ Leadership is the process of influencing others to work willingly towards goals, to the best of their capabilities, perhaps in a manner different to that which they would otherwise have chosen”. (Working with and leading people, course book 86, chapter 3). The role of leadership is very important for any team, company or organization. Follow the course book; we have some theories of leadership:
Trait – analyzing the personality characteristics or preferences successful leaders.
Activity – analyzing what designated leaders actually do, and how they do it.
Contingency – the belief that there is no one best way of leading, but that effective leaders adapt their behavior to the specific and changing variables in the leadership context.
Style – the view that leadership is an interpersonal process whereby different leader behavior influence people in different ways.
With some knowledge about theories of leadership, they divided leadership into four leadership styles.
With scenario above, based on Mark’s case, we can know that Mark has applied the leadership theory and leadership style in leading but not good and not highly effective. Mark use Autocratic style to apply for leading his team. People follow this style will hold power and decision making in hands, have no method to assist or encourage employees to work. When the project 80% sales within 72 hours happen, Mark only hid in his office; enjoy entertainment although for the difficulties surrounding his staffs. Moreover, he criticized staffs because they did not get the goals, without any encouragement to any attempt of them such as overcome harsh weather and try to work when they hungry.
Besides that, Forgan applied theory of action-centered leadership for leading his team. “ The supervisor understands their problems, knows their difficulty, and yet is willing bring himself to their level and fight alongside them”. He is always there with members, listening ideas from them to find out problems, keeping with the role as a supervisor to give advice, instructions to staffs. He always maintains the role of the team by encouraging, keep good relationships with staff and maintain the role of the individual in team. With many evidence above, we can recognize Forgan always follow democratic style. People use this style that always knows the way to motivate and share words with staffs.
Look at two styles of leading above, we can know that Mark is unrealistic leader, not responsible to employees and work. On the other hand, Forgan is a leader that has a high sense of responsibility to employees and work. He is always there and works together with his members. With me, I will choose the leadership style of Forgan. As I know when the leader work closely to staffs that will motivate the competence of them and the efficiency of work will be increase.
Effectively communicate visions, goals and values to colleagues and promote understanding of how delegated objectives support these.
A team gets successes when it achieves the team’s vision and the visions are supported by missions, value and objectives which are set up by the leader. A specific and clearly objective along with a good leadership will help to take the right path and will achieve much success.
Vision: it is not a dream, this is a result that team want to achieve in a long-term.
Goals: This is a specific result that team must be achieved in the short term, it supports to achieving the vision of team.
Value: this is a value of staff’s belief on during work.
Based on Mark’s situation, his team’s vision and goal have to achieve 80% sales within 72 hours. So he distributes the dealer scattered throughout the city to attract maximum the attention of customers. Having a specific vision and goal, but the needs staff’s wants that is the value of work, spirit value so Mark has not. He does not take any action to encourage the spirit of staffs. So Mark’s project has not finished well. About Forgan, he also proposes a specific vision and clear objectives that completed the construction projects shopping mall on time. Moreover, he is always improving, encouraging the spiritual values of staff. He is always there, clearly understands about their situation and show many measures to help them when there are changes or difficulties. So his group’s project complete very well.
Enthuse and motivate colleagues to achieve team objectives.
The company suggest that when working for a company, the most important goal of all is to achieve the highest level of work expectation and to do your best at all times. In another side, members work to achieve the best efficiency, a manager must have the spirit motivating their work. Follow Buchanan and Huczynski, they said “ motivation is a decision making process through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to acquiring them”. (Working with and leading people, page 160, chapter 5). Motivation is the energizer of behaviour and mother of all action. It results from the interactions among conscious and unconscious factors such as the intensity of desire or need, incentive or reward value of the goal, and expectations of the individual and of his or her significant others.
Motivating colleagues is a key factor that leads to company’s success. There are many motivation theories and by applying them correctly, the company will gain more successes. But with Mark, he uses power, his position as leader and gives works to members to do and decide by themselves. On the project day is coming, Mark was nowhere to be seen. He hides within the comforts of his office, enjoying its luxurious facilities and monitoring the progress at his own leisure and no encouragement workers do the task.
Besides that, Forgan uses Moral power, being always there with them. Forgan clearly understands their gloom and lack of motivation that is a week of thunderstorm and a delay in the arrival of the steel bars, he understands members’ think and members’ difficult, and fights alongside them. This creates an immense sense of inspiration and respect, as well as awareness of the severity of the situation, and motivates the team to eventually complete the task by the deadline. He is always beside members for advising, lending more power, spirit and energy to them because he knew a half of member would be fired on a late schedule.
Promote confidence among colleagues to engage with change within organisation.
During doing work, every organization will have a problem, change from inside to outside. Those changes sometimes will make to decrease the spirit and motivation to work of members. So, leaders who need to take steps, to discuss strategy builds confidence for staff, communicating them confidence to be able to stand, to overcome difficulties to complete the task. When the group has changed, that group will take two ways that are positive and negative. Leader’s task is to find ways to lead the group going in positive direction to complete the good job.
When work has changed, if you are confident enough leaders, you can pass all difficulties; it will increase confidence in employees. Mark is a diffident person. He hides in his office and enjoy while members were enthusiastically working. Although he knew employees work too hard, they have a big problem with weather, flood, and food. However, he don’t support to them, he just looks results for critics. In addition, Forgan is a confident person, he is ready to solve every trouble, he is always beside his members giving advises and instruction to them. With a manager like Forgan, his confidence will transfer to the employees so they are ready to overcome all difficulties and complete the project.
“ Self-confidence is one of the key ingredients to a successful. Not only will a useful dose of self-confidence improve your business interactions, it will improve your social interaction and chances at climbing the ladder of success”. (ehow. com (2010) self-confidence, [online], [cited 14/4/2011] Available). If leader want his group is successful, he need to make members have to feel confident in themselves. Leader can give a small prize for increasing their confidence. For example, one member is doing better than another member in the group, or they improve their work too much, you need to praise them. Leader should be side them and give a good advice to them, this makes them to feel confident.
Empower colleagues to present their own ideas, develop their own ways of working within agreed boundaries and to provide a lead in their own areas of expertise.
“ Empowerment is the current term for making workers (and particularly work teams) responsible for achieving, and even setting, work targets, with the freedom to make decisions about how they are to be achieved”. (Working with and leading people, page 107, chapter 3). Delegation is a necessary requirement in work teams. Leader should delegate to their employees in order to encourage them to be creative in their sphere. For example, a technology expert is expected to be given whole force in designing a website for his company so that he can maximize his creativity. About Mark, he empowers for his employees to marketing activities, deal price within their permissions. Mark sure he will support members, without intervention to their work. To say about Forgan, he also has his own methods in delegating to his staff. Employees who work in different specialties have different power in their sphere. Besides, he also keeps observing his staff and immediately gives a hand if there is obstruction. This is his especial point. He may empower his team members to choose a way of finishing the project: overtime, asking for help from others.
As a nature rule, one group will definitely increase their productivity if they are empowered certain force. There is no doubt that when a manager delegate to his employees, there will be high improvement in ardor. It is believed to be the optimal way to stimulate their enthusiasm and creativity. There are four measures for a manager to delegate to his employees such as information, expertise, personality, moral power. By applying these measures, a manager can not only rise up productivity but also achieve goals quickly.
The purpose of the empowerment group is to maximize the user’s responsibility at work and increase team spirit. In hand with other agencies, members of the team feel motivated, so that all members will work with high productivity to achieve more for the team. However, when the members of the group have more powers, they may abuse their powers it is given, or can only focus on successes rather than their own team’s success. Mark and Forgan must provide measures to reduce these advantages when making authority to subordinates.
Plan work activities using appropriate objective-setting techniques and processes within team.
Plan working within team is essential and indispensable in the process of activities of the group. A clear plan, specific goals and good leadership will help team less time but the efficiency of work will be high. Two tables below will show the plan work activities of Mark and Forgan.
Plan work activities
Deploy the sale project within 72hours
Achieving sales of eighty percent of the units available
Provide, improve knowledge and experience about sale for employees.
Always supervised the working process and given instructions as well as advice for employees.
To be able to sales more house, should choose the best place to set up sales agent such as: city squares, train stations and shopping complexes and divide members for each place.
Each member has different role and power.
Show the measures to encourage, motivate the ability of members such as reward or promotion…
Create comfortable environment for employees to work.
Leader should supervised working process of team to catch the information and exchange work with members. Moreover, can show some measures to support or consult for them.
Use technology for communication (mail, internet, phone …) to create good relationship with members.
Standard and Benchmarks
Each team has to sale at least 25% of the units.
Time working of each member at least 8 hours a day.
The price of each apartment has not to be lower than 80, 000 USD.
The preferential policies for customers who earliest, or the reward policy for employees who work most effectively.
Make regulations for employees to follow and do not lack the law on real estate.
Plan work activities
Forgan’s team has been running late on schedule and meets many misadventures such as a week of thunderstorm and a delay in the arrival of the steel bars.
Completing the piling for their shopping mall project on time and ensuring about the standard of project.
First, try to solve problems such as find new supplier about material (steel, iron…) or minimize the impact of the storm to the project.
Divide specific task for each member, divide them into many group and each group has different role such as:
One building group: The main task is that build stores.
One logistic group: provide the materials and support to building group if they need.
One supervisor group: supervised the working process and give the instructions or support.
Increase labor productivity and process of workflow to ensure this project completion on time and increase time working of employees (8 hours to 10 hours) go along with this problem is increase the salary of them or recruit more staffs.
Use the high technology and ensuring enough the materials for the project.
Leader should monitor the employment process of staff to timely support, help or make decisions when there is a change.
Leader and employees should talk to each other regularly to devise the most effective method. And it is the best way to capture the issues and provide measures to solve them.
– The teams should support, exchange of working together to increase solidarity sticking.
Standard and Benchmarks
The preferential policies for employees as positive signs of encouragement and reward.
Ensuring the safety of the members work.
Ensuring quality of projects.
Ensuring compliance of construction law.
Ensuring projects completed on time.
Negotiate tasks with colleagues using suitable delegation techniques to motivate and enable colleagues.
“ Delegation of authority is when a superior gives to a subordinate part of his or her own authority to make decisions”. (Working with and leading people, page 102, chapter 3). Delegation is an important feature of many workplace relationships and the need for effective delegation is increasing. Delegation is an extremely necessary and important to ask the leader that must use their skills to divide work to increase spirit of work of members, helping them find the motivation to achieve goals. Leader has to prepare equal tasks for each member and in certain limits. And here are two tables of delegation of both Mark and Forgan for members to complete the project most effective.
Current volume of work
– Each group has 5 members, divide 8 groups at eight different locations of city squares, train stations and shopping complexes, time work of each group is 8 hours and sale at least 15% per day.
– Each member has to do different role and they will be responsible about themselves.
– The staffs are divided many groups and change-over to work to ensure the project finish on time.
– Working time will be increased to 10 hours per day to ensure project completion on time.
– Recruit more staffs if they need.
Identification of the tasks and person in charge
– Leader should delegate equal power for staffs.
– Sales department: have power about making the price of product.
– Customers department: have power about communication or negotiation with customer about the product.
– Give employees power to increase the creativity and capacity to work.
– Supervisor department have power to find for group the new suppliers material (steel, iron…) to ensure the construction progress of the project.
– The members will have power to ask for support from other or leader.
– Leader must ensure the quality of the project and use qualified personnel, knowledge and experience high.
Resource, procedures authority
– Making the price that help for the sales department.
– leader has to supervised about the process of work to give the support for the staffs such as they can intervene in price when the price staffs give that is lower than company give.
– Have measures to help the staffs that do not lack the law and bring the profit for company.
– The manager of each group has to talk to the leader to report with him about the progress of project.
– Leader has to provide contact numbers for members to communicate when they need the support.
– Ensuring the project has properly followed the law and regulation on construction.
Development needs and activities and evaluate the effectiveness of activities carried out by individuals and teams.
As mentioned above, the leadership styles of Mark and Forgan are completely different. Mark is the leader over the lack of confidence. He does not have any action to support his members, no policy to encourage them to work. He only looked at the final result to criticize his members, instead of giving them any motivation and encouragement because of their hard-working. On the other hand, Forgan is very responsible in work and with his team. He was always next to the staff and offer usefully advices, supports them to work.
Based on scenario, we can easy see Mark has no strength point in his role that is a leader. On the other, he has too many weaknesses as have not method to motivated, encouraged members, not build a strong team, not fulfilled the role of a leader from which we can understand more about his skills as communication or negotiation that are not good. With many evidence above, he should improve management capabilities, team working skill, understanding the thinking of staff that to give measures to support, encourage them. Because the role of Mark is not good, so it affects the group’s projects and therefore it did not complete well.
Instead, the weakness of Mark again is the strength of Forgan. As mentioned, his leadership style helped to motivate members, make them feel more comfortable that will raise morale and creativity in work for employees. And these things show me about skills of Forgan such as communication or negotiation that are very good. Besides that, the weakness of Forgan are time management, priority risk planning. So, he should improve these weaknesses, he should organize and arrange more reasonable time for employees as well as the progress of the project. Because he did not prepare about them, so his team met some troubles, but the project still finished on time, got a certain level of success and most important thing that he knows the way to motivate the ability of members to work. He is always there with them to overcome difficulties and also jointly solve problems. In general, Forgan’s leadership style is very well; He understood the staff thought, so his team should be ready to face any difficulty to achieve common purpose.
Suitable methods, with clearly defined and relevant criteria and objectives, to assess the performance of colleagues.
A performance evaluation is a step that the performance of an employee is measured in quality, cost, quantity and time. Having many methods that the leader can use to assess the performance of colleagues and it bases on the organizational ethos, objectives, size, product technology… And below is some methods that Mark and Forgan can use to apply for their team:
Observation: team leader who uses this method to grasp the situation taking place in their group. As a team leader, Mark and Forgan need to observe the performance of their team and able to offer measures to support.
Performance evaluation: This method helps leaders understand the strengths and weaknesses of employees, promoting and encouraging their motivation. Through measurement, leaders will assess the current performance of their staff know that the employees are on track or not. From there, the manager can provide appropriate solutions or for more training for staff to perform better.
The Appraisal Interview is suggested to assess the colleagues because each of them have their own problem need improving and this method is more friendly to make the colleagues easier to get the feedback.
360 degree feedback is also a popular measure. This method help leaders can know every aspect of the individualâ€š performance, and base on comparison of the individualâ€š self-assessment with the view of others.
In this context, the application of 360 degree feedback is most reasonable for Mark and Forgan. 360 degree feedback is an approach which collects comments and feedback on an individual’s performance from all these sources adds the individual’s own self assessment. Apply this method, Mark Forgan and can know the full information about individual and it highlights every aspect of the individual’s performance, and allows comparison of the individual’s self assessment with the views of others. Using this method, Mark and Forgan have the assessment that based on real work, not artificial situations. 360 degree feedback represents the most accurate information to find appropriate solutions to improve performance and productivity.
Identify factors affecting the quality of performance and provide clear and constructive feedback on performance to colleagues based on it.
In any work or any project, it has elements affect the process or activity which requires team leaders who cannot be known. With Mark and Forgan, also, their projects have many factors in the process of team work and effect on quality of performance and results of the project. And here are some factors that arise during the activities of Mark and Forgan teams.
It Is the most important factors influencing the performance of the group. For example if the price of the group’s offer is higher than the price of other companies or the market, surely they will not achieve this goal is 80% of sales within 72 hours.
When customers feel comfortable and confident with the product they will buy. Here as in the shape of stores, furniture decoration, location of the store…. This factor is influence on the result of teamwork.
Styles of work and culture to meet company’s one
When leader set up a group, he should consider this factor. He should set up for team up a style and work culture for employees to comply with good results. Each employee has their style and different cultures to work so they will be difficult to cooperate.
Communication skill (soft skill)
This skill is very important. If the staffs of Mark’ team is very well in this skill, they will be easy to convince the customers, and can bring many major contracts for the company.
Weather factors have a huge impact to the team’s work. In the case of Mark, when the project is running that rain came, it will delay the progress and effectiveness of the project.
Carefulness, safety, technical requirements
This factor does not seem to affect the progress of the project, but these factors on human nature. For workers in the construction projects of Forgan, these factors are very important and needs to be pay attention.
Quality of the project is always a leading factor; if the quality of project is high, it will create the reputation of company in the market and create confidence for the customer. And it is influence on the company’s business.
Weather and a delay in the arrival of the steel bars.
This factor is very important and it affects directly to the projects of Forgan. With construction projects, bad weather and delays on the delivery of the materials that will delay the progress of work and affect finished time. For example it rains, the workers will be day off so it will delay work progress.
“ Feedback is communication, which offers information to an individual or group about how their performance, results or behaviours are perceived or assessed by others”. (Working with and leading people, page 199, chapter 6). Feedback is a kind of method, it helps the leader manage their employees and helps them follow the right way, and ensure the efficient of work.
When managers receive information from employees, they should give feedback as soon as possible. For staff to work effectively, the manager should have policies reward and promotion, so they feel a goal to strive for, motivate work to get higher yields for company. For staff not working effectively, a manager should show their bad points, together analyze problems, and give advice to help them look at shortcomings in for repair. Feedback should be clear, regular and appropriate for different situations to get the best results. With Mark and Forgan, they should have a good response of the efforts of employees in the job. Employees should be praise or reward for morale of them.
Incorporate your results of assessment into personal development plans and other organizational procedures for dealing with employees’ performance issues.
Based on scenario above, with Mark, he should improve some skills such as motivation skill, communication skill, leadership skill that to help him feel confident in the job, making the right decisions for the project and helps group work get more effective. To improve about motivation skill, communication skill, leadership skill, With Forgan, he should improve the skills of time management to help the project work on time, in order to improve the effectiveness of the work. To improve this skills, organ should join training courses, taking the time to read up on Improving his time management skills can lead to great Rewards. Besides that, establishing a personal development plan can also help improve the weaknesses of Mark and Forgan.
Personal development plan
Why he want to achieve that?
1. Improve his soft skills (communication skill, leadership skill…)
Spend 4 hours per week to join in training course in 3 months. Try to work with members and find the way to solve problem together.
Soft-skill will help him more confidence and become a success business manager.
Ending-date: July 5th, 2011
Day-time1: Monday, Wednesday,
6h- 8h am
2. Improve about motivation skill.
Spend 4 hours per week to join in training course and in 2 months. Read book and working together with members and try to show methods to encourage them.
Motivation skill is also important for leader. It helps increase the spirit in work of employees.
Start-date: April 1st, 2011
Ending-date: June 30th, 2011
Day-time2:, Saturday, Sunday
3. there are measures to support employees and responsibility in the work
Join work with staff, regular exchange
with staff about work.
Help to increase the relationship between members of the group. Increase creativity in the work of staff.
During the time of the project.
3. Improve time management skill.
Spend 6 hours to study in training course. Together with employees make plans designed and timetable for the project. Determine the progress of the project.
Determine the exact time of the project and time finish. Since then, Forgan can handle situations in the project that put forth measures to solve the problem.
Start-date: April 1st , 2011
Ending-date: July 1st, 2010
Day-time5: Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday
6 – 8 pm
6. Empowerment for employees in their field.
View, evaluate each members
and empower them, but at a certain limit.
Increases creative for employees. Boost their morale.
During the time of the project.
7. Mantance the leadership skill and team building.
Consolidate and develop the strength, work with staff and try to make accurate decisions.
Make the confidence to employees so they feel comfortable in the job. That time, the efficiency of performance will be higher.
During the time of the project.
Encouragement and motivate employees to work are one of the indispensable work for any leader. Moreover, the leader should regularly monitor the activities of groups to promptly take measures to support the employees when they meet problem. Through this report, we can see the important role of leadership to the process of group activities. Mark is the leader that lacks of the confidence and only looks at results to criticize his staffs. So his group’ project did not finish well. Besides, Forgan is the good leader. He has always given the encouragement methods to employees, always being there with them. So his group’s project completed well.
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