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What factors should determine the action to take if an incident arises in which an employee does not have the authority to make a decision, but delayed action could enhance the problem

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What factors should determine the action to take if an incident arises in which an employee does not have the ity to make a decision, but delayed action could enhance the problem?

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Decision-making process is a complex process in many organizations. Each organization has policies and guidelines that guide the process of decision-making in that particular organization. One of the principal challenges that faces the decision-making process arises when there is an emergency that requires the employee to make a major decision that may be above his/her management level.
West, M. A., Borrill, C., Dawson, J., Scully, J., Carter, M., Anelay, S., … & Waring, J. (2002). The link between the management of employees and patient mortality in acute hospitals. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(8), 1299-1310
West et al. (2002) explores the challenges faced in emergency procedures in a hospital setting due to the limits of authority levels. The writer puts the welfare of the patient, while making all the decisions that should be made regardless of the level of authority of the employee. He points out that, the organization policy should provide for such situation such that the employee available with the necessary expertise should make the necessary decisions for the safety of the patient regardless of their authority level. This brings the organization culture into focus. The employees should consider the organization culture concerning this matter.
Bharosa, N., Lee, J., & Janssen, M. (2010). Challenges and obstacles in sharing and coordinating information during multi-agency disaster response: Propositions from field exercises. Information Systems Frontiers, 12(1), 49-65
The writers explore the place of ethics in emergency situations in a business organization. Bharosa et al. (2010) argues that ethical standards should be the pinnacle of every decision an employee needs to make during an emergency situation. For instance, in a case where there is a fire break out and an employee has to choose between the safety of a person and the safety of the company assets, the safety of the person comes first. Hence, the employee has to consider ethics before making any decision.
Boin, A., HART, P. T., McConnell, A., & Preston, T. (2010). Leadership style, crisis response and blame management: The case of Hurricane Katrina. Public Administration, 88(3), 706-723
According to Boin et al. (2010), the leadership style adopted by an organization affects the decision-making process in the organization. The writers argue that in an autocratic style of leadership, the management makes all the major decisions, and the employees are expected to consult the senior management in case of any emergency. For the case of democratic style of leadership, the management entrusts the decision-making process to the employee in their specific field of operation. Hence, the employee should consider the style of leadership before making any decisions. Even so, the management structure should be such that there will be accountability for any decisions made during emergencies.
Hillyard, M. J. (2000). Public crisis management: How and why organizations work together to solve societys most threatening problems. San Jose, Calif: Writers Club Press.
According to the writer, the safety of the public should be put first in any emergency situation. In a case where the decision of an employee affects the safety of the public, the employee will be expected to make a decision regardless of his or her authority level. In this case, the employee has the permission to act in the favor of the public.
Stringer, L. (2006). The link between the supervisor and the level of the employees creates job satisfaction. Public Organization Review, 6(2), 125-142.
According to Stringer (2006), the relationship between the supervisor and the employees is a big determinant when it comes to effective decision-making during emergency situations. If the supervisor maintains a close relationship of mutual respect with the employees, the employees are likely to make responsible decisions for the good of all in emergency situations. When there is hostility between the supervisor and the employees, the employees are likely to look out for their interests during emergency situations.
Buchbinder, S. B., & Shanks, N. H. (2012). Introduction to health care management. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
According to Buchbinder, & Shanks (2012), the safety of the employee in question is paramount in any emergency. In a case where the safety of the employee is threatened, he or she should make a decision regardless of their authority level to preserve their health. In such a situation, the ethical standards of the organization will be in question if they hold the employee accountable for the decision made.
DiPaolo, A., & Syracuse University. (2008). The separation of powers: A framework for guiding judicial decision-making when the executive limits individual liberties during armed hostilities.
According to DiPaolo & Syracuse University (2008), in some situations an employee may receive permission to act in an emergency situation from the provisions provided by the executive. This applies mainly in cases where the national security is at stake. In such a case, the company policy becomes ineffective as compared to the executive order.
Coombs, W. T. (2008). PSI handbook of business security. Westport, Conn: Praeger Security International.
As Coombs (2008) points out, some organization policies provide guidelines that address emergency situations. In a case where the employee is authorized to make a decision that is above their authority levels, he or she should go ahead. Most emergencies require that a person make quick and informed decisions to save the situation. The top management in organizations is expected to make provisions in their organization policies to address how employees should act in case of emergencies.
References
Bharosa, N., Lee, J., & Janssen, M. (2010). Challenges and obstacles in sharing and
coordinating information during multi-agency disaster response: Propositions from field exercises. Information Systems Frontiers, 12(1), 49-65.
Boin, A., HART, P. T., McConnell, A., & Preston, T. (2010). Leadership style, crisis response
and blame management: The case of Hurricane Katrina. Public Administration, 88(3), 706-723.
Buchbinder, S. B., & Shanks, N. H. (2012). Introduction to health care management. Burlington,
Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Coombs, W. T. (2008). PSI handbook of business security. Westport, Conn: Praeger Security
International.
DiPaolo, A., & Syracuse University. (2008). The separation of powers: A framework for guiding
judicial decision making when the executive limits individual liberties during armed hostilities.
Hillyard, M. J. (2000). Public crisis management: How and why organizations work together to
solve societys most threatening problems. San Jose, Calif: Writers Club Press.
Stringer, L. (2006). The link between the quality of the supervisor–employee relationship and the
level of the employees job satisfaction. Public Organization Review, 6(2), 125-142.
West, M. A., Borrill, C., Dawson, J., Scully, J., Carter, M., Anelay, S., … & Waring, J. (2002).
The link between the management of employees and patient mortality in acute hospitals. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(8), 1299-1310.

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