- Published: January 25, 2022
- Updated: January 25, 2022
- University / College: The University of Arizona
- Level: College
- Language: English
- Downloads: 4
Routine Activity Theory Much of what we understand regarding human thought and crime has materialized due to a number of criminal justice theories. For instance, routine activity theory tries to explain crime situations and the post conduct time of crime. Although some theories have become irrelevant, the routine activity theory has remained relevant and helpful to human beings. It has helped experts over time to understand the human thought and conduct as well being a source of criminal knowledge. The theory of criminal justice postulates every aspect of the psychology discipline and other related areas. It further qualifies to be psychological in nature since it encompasses the scientific critique of mental purposes and conduct with the ultimate goal of accepting individuals and instituting general principles articulating specific circumstances, which eventually aim to benefit the society.
The first principle vis-à-vis the main foundation of crime activity theory states that, crime is comparatively unaffected by social bases like poverty, discrimination and unemployment. As wealth increases and individuals begin acquiring more of it, cases of crime start to escalate hence demonstrating the positive relationship between wealth expansions and crime related acts like theft and robbery. For instance, after the Second World War, the economy of most Western republics was flourishing and the welfare of the people started to improve significantly. However, the rate of crime increased significantly during this period thus, agreeing to Felson and Cohen that an increase in wealth of the modern society creates more openings for crime to thrive because there is plenty to steal.
In addition, another principle states that, the aspects of situation and crime specific render a precise target more attractive for individuals to commit crime. This principle can be articulated in a better form that, offenders are persons who are not only adept of committing criminal action, but are prepared to do so. Thus, people or objects that are considered apt targets to wrongdoers are more vulnerable or predominantly attractive for criminals. The third principle of the theory of routine activity lays down three indispensable situations for crime to be committed. The theory states that, when a probable offender, meets the right target in the absence of a an able protector, in good time and space then crime must be committed or for a crime to happen, a probable offender must find a proper target with accomplished guardians absent as shown below diagram.
The routine activity theory is not of much help in the modern society because its assumptions and principles are not centered on the contemporary lifestyle and behavior of man. It is largely a macro theory of oppression, which expresses who vulnerable individuals are without mentioning the offenders who commit this crime. In addition, the theory postulates a connection between victims and criminals and hence, the patterns found by the theorists of routine activity may perhaps be deceptive. Additionally, crime rates are normally relational to the number of enthused offenders, such as adolescents and unemployed persons, in the populace (Williams & McShane, 1998).
However, the impetus can be lowered if genuine means are offered for offenders to realize their goals in life. Further, a pre-emption that affects the routine doings that produces delinquency is the moral principles and socialization of the criminals. For instance, if an individual has been partied to hold predictable beliefs, even in the existence of criminal chances, offenders would abstain from crime. Therefore, such is the strong point of social bonds that assist as a buffer to neutralize the lure of criminal actions. Therefore, understanding criminality from the viewpoint of the theory of routine activity can help us to make sense of the many otherwise incomprehensible irregularities and lapses of logic regarding why people commit crime.
Williams, F. P., & McShane, M. D. (1998). Criminology Theory: Selected Classic Readings, Burlington: Elsevier Science.
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