- Published: November 25, 2021
- Updated: June 28, 2022
- Language: English
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The fast economic expansion that organization are achieving currently is through the technological advancement across the industrial upgrading and remodeling. In these steps, the IT transition have a fundamental function in the fast industrialization of UK. Government plans at offering infrastructure, education, investment motivation, as well as training rewards, and establishing an example through itself becoming a control applicant of IT, assisted UK to attain a top degree of IT penetration. This is certainly true within the public industry and in vast organizations; nevertheless, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as well as developing countries inclines to break nonetheless in their skills and embracing of engineering technology to boost performance. This study debates the patterns of civil engineering application by developing countries (China and Nigeria in particular) and utilization cases researches to pinpoint the likelihood that occurs for countries that desire to invest vast resources in suitable civil engineering. Regulations considered by the governments to support Nigeria and China in their adoption of IT and civil engineering advancement are also elaborated.
Civil engineering as defined by Narayanan and Beeby (2003) refers to a branch of engineering, which entails the idea, model, construction, and control of domestic and commercial structures and buildings, transportation systems, and water supply tools for products and individuals, alongside the management of the environment for the sustenance and enhancement of life quality. They further added that civil engineering entails design and planning scholarly in private and public sectors, builders, researchers, educators and contractors. The civil engineer maintains healthy, safety, and welfare of community members significantly. Griggs (2007), argued that civil engineering projects and structures must meet the governmental principles and statutes; must develop economically to serve appropriately with least of sustainability and repair and at the same enduring expected application and weather. It must preserve energy and enable risk-free production while offering safe, healthful, and environmentally sound exploration vie the community.
In UK, civil engineering has had fundamental function in facilitating workable approaches, refurbish, sustain, and upgrade infrastructure. These infrastructures comprises mass transit, bridges, roads, storage facilities, railroads, communication and control towers, terminals, and water supply and treatment systems. In the absences of an appropriate and operational infrastructure, the urban area may not maintain the growth, health, and prosperity desired by everyone. Mitchell (1993) and Oakes (2001) both claimed that its goals are so diversified and entails a logical advancement of interrelated elements alongsidegiven data to obtain a visually attractive surrounding and energy-prudent end-mark. Civil engineering projects are often systems needing the experiences and inputs of several varied technical disciplines, each of which is a subset of the entire civil engineering field and is highly needed in developing countries such as Nigeria and China because of their potentials and willingness to try new approaches.
Dash (2008) emphasized that some of the subsets, which civil engineering may concentrate on in China and Nigeria include mapping, photogrammetry, surveying, society, and urban planning, besides waste control and risk evaluation. However, different fields in these two countries, which civil engineers may focus in, involve construction, environmental, structural, water resources, geotechnical, and transportation engineering. Oakes (2001), defined that early and feudal history of developing countries, a number of architectural constructions and designs was undertaken by artisans like the stonemasons or carpenters, increasing the function of the master constructor. For this reasons, he adds that skills was kept in guilds and rarely supplanted through progress. Infrastructures such as roads that were present were tedious and rises in scale were incremental. Walewski and Gibson (2005) added that in developing countries there existed no separation between architecture and civil engineering. The term architect and engineer were often of geographical variances to an equivalent person. It is by such imagination that UK civil engineering should chip in to introduce modern approaches and principles of civil engineering first in China and Nigeria because these countries have the potential because of their economic rate, resources, and adopting of new technologies that is embraced by most people.
Griggs (2007) stated that there is no classical career route for civil engineers. A number of individuals who take this path start with low-level jobs, and as they prove their competency, they gain trust, are given advanced tasks with vast outcomes, and need a top level of liability. For a start, expansion by UK civil engineering into these markets should be an opportunity because of its vast nature of resource (labor) and willingness of individuals to learn the varied options of engineering. Narayanan and Beeby (2003) also showed interests in these markets because of its development rate. China currently is the fastest growing nations economically because of its IT base and empowerment of people to carry out various projects on how to boost international relations. China government is flexible in its regulations and can allow entry international organizations to inject skills and equip its members for future roles. Nigeria on the other hand, has what it takes and UK civil engineering can fine market easily for its products in this region because of cultural diversity and lifestyle of common people. Walewski and Gibson (2005) also added civil engineering for it to prosper needs well-trained personnel. Education system in these two countries are almost similar but with some little variations, which cannot hinder the adoption of such new training within its systems.
Limitations to research
Each research, regardless of how appropriate it is carried out, has a number of limitations. Qualitative research, for instance, has been condemned for overexploiting interviews and concentration on teams at the expense of other approaches like observation, documentary assessment, case studies, ethnography, and conversational evaluation. Research quality is weightily based on single people skill of the study and largely affected by the researcher’s selfish interests, favors, and idiosyncrasies. The researcher’s existence through data collection that is usually inevitable in qualitative study may influence the field’s reaction (Durham, 2003).
In addition, poor accessibility of information may lead to poor analysis if the research has some crucial information for the study is missing. This is also in line with lack of adequate resources to be utilized in research. In such a case, the researcher may not travelled and gather all the information from the targeted area. The results of the study will, therefore not be conclusive. The findings may also be hard and time consuming to demonstrate in visual manner. Lastly, any research needs the support and dedication from the organization. If these elements are missing, then the research will not achieve its goals and objectives.
The research methodology is an essential procedure for research because the choice of the research method affects the conclusion that can be derived from the phenomenon. It influence what is said concerning the cause and aspects affecting the phenomenon. In this case, collection of data will mainly be based on primary methods such as use of questionnaires, interviews, and observations. This method will be supported by secondary data collection, which include searching for information in books, journals, magazines, the Internet, and other archived sources. After collection, the data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Quantitative study is relied on measurement of amount or size, while qualitative is focused on valuation of phenomenon (Claire, 2010).
Research need to include a number of steps to ensure the complete collection of data. In this case, the step undertaken include identification of the question. For instance, what are the key advantages that UK civil engineering will find from expansion of its market to Nigeria and China? This will then be pursued by determining the background information of the study. This is achieved by reading books, or articles to set points of the research. Other sources to be considered include the Internet, periodicals, and referrals. The obtained information will then be evaluated and presented to the research team in order to proceed with the research (Zadek, et al., 2009).
- China and Nigeria are emerging countries and they are highly suited for the study
- The nearness of both countries to the coastal region ensure accessible for the UK experts
- Nature of their economy (China is currently the fastest growing country economically while Nigeria has stable economy)
- IT adoption possess a lot of competition to civil engineering in both countries
- SWOT analysis
- Nigeria has oil deposits and agricultural as main activities and engineering fits well in this sectors
- Safety and security
- Government regulations
- Research analysis
Civil engineering is a field that all countries need to adopt in view of the globalization objectives. IT on the other hand, has developed at an alarming rate in almost all countries and through it; civil engineering has been made easier. The people of Nigeria and China are not afraid to embrace the technology introduced to them. in fact, the two countries are working towards making every aspect based on information technology. This therefore, is an initial advantage for the UK civil engineering because the company will get the desired support fast. This follows the fact that both countries are emerging markets and are venturing or investing in any opportunity that come their side. Emerging markets are advantageous because there are adequate resources for the implementation of new enterprises. China for instance, has taken its technology to other levels that other countries are finding it hard to compete with them. for that reason, infrastructure is highly needed in this region and UK civil engineering by expanding to this market will penetrate the market very fast (Moavenzadeh&Ann, 2006).
China and Nigeria have access to coastal waters and thus, makes it easier for UK civil engineers to transport their materials and capital. This implies that execution of function will take a shorter time in relation to other landlocked countries. This means that these markets are viable for investment not only by the UK civil engineering but also by other interested organization. Through this, the UK civil engineering company can easily get the desired support for implementation of its projects within these regions (Mitchell, 1993).
On the other hand, the nature of economies for the two countries are favorable for any foreign investor. This increases the potential these markets have since with stable economy most of the projects implemented can easily command their market share and advance at appropriate rate without any financial calamities. China, for example, is now ranked among the fastest growing economy throughout the world. Civil engineering with its diversified fields will set a firm base with the region and hence, its profitability will increase immensely. In addition, because of its favorable economic states, other organizations such as the service industry, education, and agriculture will get a lot of support and this increases the viability of engineering activities (Moavenzadeh& Ann, 2006).
Jointly, the two countries have a strong talent base. Civil engineering will, thus, find roots within the region and this ensures a permanent and profitable business. China and Nigeria education systems are flexible and one can easily practice engineering as a way of boosting their rate of industrialization. Their emerging markets is an opportunity to international investor. The nearness to the coastal regions is the other strength as goods and services can easily be exchanged. Competition among companies is, however, a threat because more companies will flood the market. This will lead to reduction of profits and slow rate of development. Its fast adoption of technology is a weakness because they do not take time to evaluate its importance and limitations. On the other hand, Nigeria has oil deposits and fertile lands for agricultural products. This is strength as well as an opportunity for the civil engineering because this is their area of specialization(Moavenzadeh & Ann, 2006).
Both countries are well known for their stable political backgrounds. This creates a good environment in which businesses (both local and foreigners) may set up their projects and worriless of their safety and security. Such a market is always viable and can grow very fast. China government are flexible and in fact, they are looking to collaborate with international agencies and governments to promote their relationships. The same is also true for the Nigerian governments. In this era of globalization, no country wants to be left behind, and thus, each try to ensure conducive environment for investments.
Civil engineering is what drive economies nowadays and any country that gets a chance of foreign investors venturing their country should give them full support for the rewards are substantial. IT and civil engineering go hand-in-hand and need adopted concurrently. This is a viable market that company can make significant profits, hence, expanding operation to these regions is recommended. To attain good market share the company should also ensure they embrace corporate social responsibility in conserving the environment and involving the community in their practices.
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