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The mobilecasting usage and leisure activities media essay

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This research is guided by the uses and gratification theory, one of the theoretical frameworks. The researcher, Herta Herzog (1944) developed the earliest uses and gratification theory because she wanted to classify the reasons people chose and consume the specific types of media. During the 1950s to 1960s, researchers continued indentify this theory by presumed many social and psychological variables to the different choice of consumption of gratifications (Wimmer & Dominick, 1994). At that time, the people’s media consumptions are the mainstream media such as newspaper, television and radio. Many of the researchers such as Schramm, Lyle, and Parker (1961), Katz and Foulkes (1962), Mendelsohn (1964), Gerson (1966), Greenberg and Dominick (1969) and Klapper (1963) have conducted their studies and introduced different predictions related to the uses and gratification theory during that period. According to Blummer and Katz (1974), two famous US communications researchers argued that the audiences use the mass media to meet the psychological and social needs under the uses and gratification theory. They explained that people consume media for reasons to meet their needs. Moreover, McQuail (2010: 426) carried out further research and concluded that people are motivated to actively seeking out what and why they use the media to achieve the gratifications or satisfy their needs. Uses and gratification theory is an audience-centered approach and it is used to understand the mass communication. The uses and gratification model often apply to the media satisfaction and the people’s choice in organisations to predict their choice (Thomas E. , 2000). One of the research by Aine Dunne, Margaret-Anne Lawlor and Jennifer Rowley (2010) explored the young people’s use of online social networking sites using the uses and gratification perspective. Due to the rapid growing of social networking sites, the results of this research is the social networking sites play a significant role to the young people and the reasons why they engage in the social media are for social uses and varied to their own personal (Aine , Margaret-Anne & Jennifer , 2010). Researchers posits two questions, theoretical and practical questions by the Ruggiero (2000). The questions are why do young people used the specific type of communication and what gratifications are achieved from the participation in social networking sites (Aine , Margaret-Anne & Jennifer , 2010). Besides that, research was developed using the uses and gratification approach to study on television crime drama and analyse the crime drama viewership. The research’s hypothesis are made by tested the independent variables (sex, age, frequency viewing crime drama) against the dependent variables (information, identification, social interaction and entertainment). The results of frequency viewing crime drama significantly is due to the curiosity and information (Darrin , Sharon , Aziz & Arshia , 2012). The uses and gratification theory provides a basis for the research study and it is relatively useful for the research on audience analysis. This theory is applicable to our research on mobilecasting and leisure activities on young generations as well to find out their relationships between the two variables. By using this theory to determine why and how are the young generations mobilecasting usage pattern and the influences of the leisure activities now. The uses and gratification is commonly used in the research areas in communication because it helps to find out the intention of the audience on their choice of media and do the audience analysis for the organisations.

2. 2 Past Research Findings

The journal article of ” The Mobile Phone as Media” by Harvey May and Greg Hearn (2005) focuses on the mobile phone into people’s everyday life in this technological era. According to Nokia ‘guru’ Christian Lindholme (2004), he stated that it is possible to Google people’s life in the future if the mobilecasting continue become people’s life for example the social networking sites or blogs (McIntosh, 2004). From the previous study of Ishii (2004) in Japan, it showed that the 3G mobile phone has positive effects on sociability as the mobilecasting usage is rapidly increasing and it takes over that usage of computer (Harvey & Greg , 2005). However, Fortunati (2002: 520) sees mobiles as a ‘mobile home’ which helps to reduce the ‘nostalgia to home’ or so-called homesick. So, the development of the mobilecasting technology shapes people’s experience and become an everyday life. There is another research carried out in Malaysia recently in the past year study about the trend of smart phones and the mobilecasting usage behaviour. From the data analysis of this research, there is approximately 90% of the respondents using smart phones are below 36 years old, meaning the majority of smart phones users are teenagers and young adults. The data also shows there is about 72% of respondents are smart phones common users which means they use smart phones for typical usage such as making calls, texting message or using applications. The 17% of respondents are advanced users are those using smart phones with advanced knowledge while the remaining 11% use the smart phones related to the mobile phone field such as the software developers, engineering and so on. On the other hand, 40% of the respondents use the smart phones for instant messaging and the main reason for it is because it is free of charge whereas sending text message charges communication fee. The major type of smart phones usage is entertainment like playing games, music, movies or online applications. Furthermore, half of the respondents use to read document files and 21% of respondents use it on regular basis. (Mohd Azam, Abdullah Zawawi , Zainal Abidin , Shiang-Yen & Abdullah Sani , 2012)The journal from United Kingdom did a research on the topic on understanding today’s smart phone user . From the findings of this research, Wi-Fi is the heavily-used wireless network technology in the world and there are more than 90% of smart phone users using Wi-Fi as the data connectivity in the developed markets. The smart phone usage behaviour are varies and personal choice but the usage behaviour shaped the available forms of connectivity. The Wi-Fi networks services are consumed for the usage of browsing, email, downloads, streaming audio or video and high bandwidth applications such as You Tube and Facebook application (” Understanding today’s smart phone,” 2012). Besides of the research about the mobilecasting, researchers Dr. Áine de Róiste and Ms. Joan Dinneen were conducted a studies on the current leisure activities of young Irish people in December 2005. The purpose of this research is to find out the current young people leisure activities are in which four categories: sports, hobbies, general free-time activities, and community/ charity groups. From the findings, 88% of the Irish young people involve in the sports reported that for boys’ popular sports are soccer, Gaelic football and hurling. However, girls’ significantly popular sports will be swimming, tennis and cycling. Then, there is two-thirds (65%) of the respondents enjoy one or more hobbies during the leisure time and the most popular hobbies for the Irish young people are looking after pets, art and playing musical instrument. Besides that, 32% of the young people enjoy their leisure time in one or more community or charity group in voluntary work. For the general free-time activities, 94% watching television and 89% listening to music are reported very common leisure activities for the young people but the computer games are the popular leisure activity because only 2% of the young people never play computer games. To conclude this research, back to few years back when mobile phone is not popular, the leisure activities are mostly sports or outdoor activities (Áine & Joan, 2005). In Malaysia, the researchers Samsudin A. Rahim, Nor Ba’yah Abdul Kadir, Wan Amizah Wan Mahmud, Rusyda Helma Mohamed, Chang Peng Kee (2011) conducted a research to examine the media time and active time among the youth in the disadvantaged community. Young people will spend media time as leisure activities, from the findings reported that youth spend most of their leisure time on watching television programs. Secondly, listen to radio is another their low involvement to listen to music but the youth’s favourite leisure activity is surfing the internet. Moreover, the active time is the involvement of the physical activity and the majority of the youth participate in sports followed by the uniform bodies and religious activities. In conclusion, the pattern of leisure activity has changed as compared to last time because the internet usage is catching up to be the favourite media leisure activity whereas the physical activity is less favoured nowadays (Samsudin A. Rahim, Nor Ba’yah Abdul Kadir, Wan Amizah Wan Mahmud, Rusyda Helma Mohamed, Chang Peng Kee, 2011). The improved mobile technology gives us a lot of advantages and the mobilecasting now is part of our daily life. People spend more time on using digital devices or mobile phone and the youth have shifted their preference leisure activity. The young people spend their leisure time more on media or mobile instead of the active time like the physical activities. It shows that the youth are dependency to the mobilecasting as their leisure activities. This issue may affect their future development due to the lack of physical activity and the mobilecasting usage behaviour.

2. 3 Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework outlines the stages and the relationship of the variables. Mobilecasting usage pattern, and leisure hour activities and the motivation of mobilecasting usage shape the mobilecasting gratification. The results of this relationship is the mobilecasting uses. Then, the independent dependent variable of this study is the mobilecasting usage and the dependent variable is the response of the measure which is the leisure activities of the young people. Therefore, the mobilecasting usage is manipulated and the leisure activities of the young people is the outcome of this study. Generally, the relationship between the mobilecasting usage and the leisure hour activities of the young people are related to each other. The mobilecasting usage determine the leisure activities of the young people because the mobilecasting is a popular leisure activities to the youth. It shows that the leisure activities are different as compared to the last time and now. Also, the motivation of the mobilecasting is about why are the young generation prefer to use the mobilecasting. Besides that, all the three elements as discussed above will shape the mobilecasting gratification. Mobilecasting gratification is the young generation being gratified or being satisfied. In addition, the mobilecasting uses is the results of this relationship and it explained how the young people is using the mobile phone.

2. 4 Research Hypotheses

H1: Motivations of mobilecasting usage has a significant relationship with the mobilecasting usage pattern. H2: Mobilecasting usage pattern has a significant relationship with youths’ leisure activities. H3: Mobilecasting usage pattern has a significant relationship with the uses mobilecasting. H4: The uses of mobilecasting has a significant relationship with the gratifications of mobilecasting usage among youth generation.

2. 5 Operational Definition

2. 5. 1 Motivations of mobilecasting usage

The mobilecasting usage is very popular among the young generation and this research examine the motivations of the mobilecasting usage. In the digital era, almost every young people own a mobile phone or smart phone and the motivations for youth on using the mobile phone can be many reasons. The attractiveness of the mobilecasting are vary and personal. For instance, young people use the mobilecasting on social network is to socialise with people or to gain popularity. Additionally, the main reason of the motivation of mobilecasting usage among the young generation is to spend their free time.

2. 5. 2 Mobilecasting usage pattern.

The youth spend their most of their leisure time of using the mobile phone and the mobilecasting usage pattern shows how often the young people using the mobilecasting. They spend most of their leisure time on playing the mobile phone to play game, surf internet or social websites, and so on. The youth will use the mobilecasting everyday and several hours per day. However, some minority of the young people are addicted to the mobile phone and they use it all day.

2. 5. 3 Young Generations’ leisure activities

Young generations’ leisure activities are not the same like the youths’ leisure activities in the past. Nowadays, the young generation are mostly indoor activities and they spend less time at the outdoor activities especially to the youth in the urban area. Young people around the aged from 15 to 25 are more interested in playing computer games or the IT gadgets during their leisure time. IT gadgets are convenient and there are a lot of applications which are why the youth addicted to the mobile phones now. Also, their spend most of their free time facing the digital devices such as computer, mobile phones, television and so on. Moreover, the youth will spend little time on physical activities like sports, religious activities or community service. The only similarity of the youth from the past and now is they spend their leisure activities for relaxation and entertainment.

2. 5. 4 Uses of mobilecasting

The uses of mobilecasting is basically to send or received the multimedia content using mobile phone in internet. The youth are addicted to the mobile phone and they use the mobile phone for some reasons. Firstly, the uses of mobilecasting is not only making calls and texting message now, people used the mobile phone to access photos, email, internet, navigation and the variety of applications. The social networking is also the main reason of the uses of mobilecasting so that young people are more convenient to socialise with friends or to gain popularity. The uses of mobilecasting is very convenient and fast to access to internet, it can be overtaking the desktop usage.

2. 5. 5 Gratifications of mobilecasting usage

The gratifications of the mobilecasting usage is how the young people meet their gratification and needs when using the mobilecasting. The youth use mobile phone very often for the entertainment purpose and different people will have different desire on how they want to use the mobile phone. But the youth are more likely to use mobilecasting to relax or entertainment during their free time. Young generations think that the mobilecasting is able to meet their needs as their leisure activities.
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