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The levels of conflict commerce essay

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1. 0 Introduction……………………………………………………….. 3

2. 0 conflict……………………………………………………………… 4

2. 1 Functional Conflict………………………………………….. 42. 2 Dysfunctional conflict………………………………………. 42. 3 Levels Of Conflict…………………………………………… 52. 4 Thomas Kilmann model…………………………………….. 6

3. 0 Negotiation…………………………………………………………. 8

3. 1 integrative Integration……………………………………….. 83. 2 Distributive Integration………………………………………. 8

4. 0 Organizational Culture……………………………………………. 9

4. 1 Handy’s framework of Culture………………………………. 9

5. 0 Conflict and Culture………………………………………………. 12

6. 0 Change Management………………………………………………12

5. 1 Kurt Lewin model of Change…………………………………. 13

7. 0 conflict and change…………………………………………………. 14

8. 0 Recommendation………………………………………………..…. 14

9. 0 Conclusion………………………………………………………….. 14

References……………………………………………………….. 15

Executive summary

In this report we will be studying on conflicts and negotiations. what are the levels of conflict and how we can resolve them. How can we negotiate and reduce conflicts in our life, how does conflict affect the cultures and what are their consequences. We have change management frequently to avoid conflict situation so kert lewin change model we used and explained in the end we would be able to understand the whole conflict and change process.

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Conflict can be characterised as a labour or challenge between persons with converse desires, Concepts, standards and goals, usually confrontation on group is inevitable. Conflict may be increase and lead to non-productive results. The diverse determinants of the confrontation may be alike while the influence will be very different. Negotiations are the most significant procedure of confrontation tenacity and often all human to determination confrontations and promiseconfrontations successful. The values of fairness, searching mutual advantage and sustaining a connection are the keys to a thriving outcome. How those associations are adept to determination those difficulties that the associations have their own ways, some of the associations that they desire to advance the administration through change administration of the organization. This kind of change may be strong duration. However, a company’s house organised, it can furthermore be healthy the wellbeing and a business, and therefore advance effectiveness, gladder, more creative workers, and a steady and evolving company. (Goodwin, 2007). How those organizations are able to determination those difficulties that the associations have their own ways some of the organizations that they desire to advance the administrationThrough change administration of the organization this kind of change may be strong duration a company’s house organised, it can furthermore be healthy the wellbeing and a business, and therefore advance effectiveness, gladder, more creative workers, and a steady and evolving company. Wursten (1989)

2. 0 Conflict

Conflict is a method in which one party perceives that its concern is being contrary influenced by another party. The phrase perceives notifies us that the source of confrontation and matters can be real. Conflict generally increase and de-escalate over time. Conflict can occur between alike assemblies inside the identical organization. For e. g.: imagine a few worker in a group setting who feels that he is consistently allotted the most menial work jobs in the group. This worker may start to harbor resentment contrary to group constituents and managers, finally lashing out through declined productivity or outright verbal conflict (Rahim, 2011).

2. 1 Functional conflict

It is a conflict between groups that improves and benefits the organization’s performance it is healthy, constructive disagreement between two or more people. Functional conflict can improve individual’s performance. It has a greater awareness of problems, increase the search for solutions release innovation and motivate the employees to change and adapt when recommended. it also improve working relationships. by releasing tensions and solving problems in working together. A key for recognizing functional conflict is that it is often related to origin that is it arises from someone challenging old policies or thinking of new ways to approach problem. , Two departments in the hospital may provide health care services to low-income rural families in the conflict most effective and adaptive method. The two departments approve on the global but not on the means to achieve it. Of any kind the outcome, low-income rural families perhaps will end up with better medical care after the conflict is settled (Rahim, 2011).

2. 2 Dysfunctional conflict

It is an unhealthy, tending to disagreement between two or more people. The scary part is that it takes the focus away from the work to be done and divert the the focus on the conflict itself and the people involved in. A key dysfunctional conflict is to recognize, its origin is often emotional or behavioural. dysfunctional conflict can create being unable to hear managers and employees and organizations as well as individuals and teams are discussed later in the chapter (Rahim, 2011).

2. 3 Levels of Conflict

1. Intrapersonal conflict: It occurs inside the one-by-one as a outcome of genuine or seen stresses from incompatible aim or expectations. An demonstration has to select between a treasured advancement in association or attractive new job with another firm (Rahim, 2011). 2. Interpersonal conflict: It occurs between two or more persons who are in disagreement to another; the confrontation may be substantive or emotional in environment, or both (Rahim, 2011). 3.  Intergroup conflict: It occurs between assemblies in an association this demonstration of confrontation between sales and output staff in two plants of the identical constructing company (Rahim, 2011). 4. Interorganizational conflict: It occurs between associations for examples, disagreements between unions and the associations using their members (Rahim, 2011). 2. 4 Thomas Kilmann Conflict-Handing modelC: UsersUserDesktopkmodel1-1024×707. jpgThe Thomas-kilmann model was made by two psychologists, Kenneth Thomas and ralph kilmann. There are two aspects in this model. The first aspect, vertical axis, is about conflict, they called these the Assertiveness, the other dimension, horizontal axis, is concerned with responses based on helping others get what they want. They call these cooperativeness options. It creates 5 basic types of response which are: 1. Competing: This option is at the top left of the model which means we take a fully assertive and uncooperative approach to resolving the conflict. it means taking action for your rights, securing a position which you believe is correct or simply beat the other party For example, competing is when the person wins a bet and your opponent loses. In this style that can find the power culture. (Goodwin, 2007)2. Accommodating: The Accommodating option is at the bottom right of the model which means you take a wholly unassertive and co-operative approach. This might take the form of selfless generosity or charity, giving in to another person’s orders when you would prefer not to, or yielding to another’s point of view (Goodwin, 2007). 3. Avoiding: The Avoiding option is at the bottom left of the model which means you take an unassertive and unco-operative approach to the conflict and don’t deal with it. Avoiding might take the form of diplomatically sidestepping an issue, postponing an issue until a better time, or simply withdrawing from a threatening situation (Goodwin, 2007). 4. Compromising: The Compromising option is at the centre of the model because it is both assertive and co-operative but only to some extent. It’s the approach of ” half a sixpence is better than none”. Both sides get something but not everything. It might mean splitting the difference between the two positions, some give and take, or seeking a quick solution in the middle ground (Goodwin, 2007). 5. Collaborating: The Collaborating option is at the top right of the model and is at the opposite extreme of avoiding. It means being willing to believe that when two parties are at loggerheads, it is possible for both sides to come out with what they want. Collaborating requires developed conflict resolution skills based on mutual respect, a willingness to listen to others, and creativity in finding solutions (Goodwin, 2007).

3. 0 Negotiation

We can characterise negotiation as a method in which two or more parties exchange items or service and try to acquiesce on the exchange rate for them. Note that we use the terms negotiation interchangeably, in negotiation we gaze into two negotiation schemes, supply a form of negotiation method, and ascertain the function of feelings and character traits on bargaining. Negotiation usually applies in business, non-profit organisations, government branches and legal proceedings etc. the negotiation study is called negotiation theory. (Harvard Business School Press, 2005). There are two general approaches to negotiation:

3. 1 Distributive Negotiation

In this parties contend over the distribution of a fixed sum of value. in distributive negotiations; a gain by one edge is made at the total cost of the other. Some persons mention to this kind of negotiation as an addition or constant-sum negotiation. The period win-lose is likely more representative of what’s involved. For example: we glimpse an utilised vehicle advertisement for sale in the newspaper. It seems to be just what you’ve been looking for. You proceed out to glimpse the vehicle and its good, and you desire to buy the seller notifies you the inquiring cost you don’t desire to yield that much. The two of you then discuss over the cost the discussion scheme you’re engaging is in called distributive negotiation. Every dollar you slash from a trader is every dollar you can save. So the essence of distributive discussions is negotiating over who gets what share of a repaired pie Fixed pie entails that negotiating. (Harvard Business School Press, 2005)

3. 2 Integrative Negotiation

In This party’s help to accomplish greatest advantages by incorporating their concerns into an affirmation while furthermore vying split up the value. parties have to be accomplished at both conceiving worth and asserting it. in integrative negotiation, our task is twofold: to conceive as much worth as likely for yourself and for the other party, and to assertion worth for yourself. Many use the period win-win in mentioning to this kind of arrangement. Regrettably that period suggests that all parties get everything they desire which is the uncommon case. More probable each makes trade-offs to get things they worth most, while giving up other, less critical types of value. (Harvard Business School Press, 2005)

4. 0 Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is commonly advised to responsible for a wide variety of organizational matters, occasionally attributed to conceiving an affirmative quality. it is essential therefore, that we discover this notion more mindfully to endow us to realize demeanor of associations and investigate and take organizational difficulties and activities examples for organizational norms are don’t say what the boss doesn’t want to hear, don’t be associate with an ugly event etc..(Ian, 2009).

4. 1 Handy’s Framework of Culture

Handy proposes that we can classify organisations into a very broad variety of four cultures.. The cultures he talks about are Power’, ‘ Role’, ‘ Task’ and ‘People’. The reason of the investigation is to consider the stage to which the predominant heritage reflects the genuine desires and constraints of the organisation. Handy values diagrammatic representation to show his ideas (Martin, 2005). C: UsersUserDesktopquadrant. gif

The power culture:

Handy describes the power culture as a ‘ web’. This reflects the engrossment of power of a family-owned enterprise, which can either be exceedingly large or small. The family procedure with firm responsibilities going to family constituents blame granted to personalities other than know-how conceives the power structure of the ‘ web’. For example, a huge organisations in the USA, run as a little family enterprise at the peak and renowned as ‘ robber barons’. Power is intensified in a little locality, the centre of which is the wheel or the centre of the web. Power radiates out from the centre, generally a key character, to other ones in the family who drive data down to agencies, purposes or units. The significant issue to note is that, because power and decision-making is intensified in so couple of hands, the strategists and key family constituents conceive positions which other ones have to implement. It is tough for other ones out-of-doors the ‘ family network’ to leverage events. The proficiency of the power heritage to acclimatize to alterations in the natural environment is very much very resolute by the insight and proficiency of those who live at the places of power inside it. The power culture has more belief in persons than managing assemblies and can either change very quickly and acclimatize or ‘ fail to glimpse the require for change’ and die (Martin, 2005).

The role culture:

This has been typified as a Greek temple and has often been stereotyped as depicting bureaucracy in its purest form. The apex of the temple is where the conclusion producing takes location; the pillars of the temple contemplate the purposeful flats of the administration which have to apply the conclusions from the apex. The power of the heritage lies in specialisation inside its pillars. Interaction takes location between the purposeful specialism by job descriptions, methods, directions and systems. This is very much an administration heritage run by a paper system. An administration is not founded on individual start but is determined by job descriptions. Co-ordination is by a slender band of older staff. This is the only coordination needed as the scheme presents the essential integration. Handy states that the job recount is more significant than the abilities and natural forces of those who persons the culture. Performance after the function prescription is not needed or encouraged. The administration of place power is legitimate. Personal power is not. Handy proposes that this heritage is befitting in organisations which are not subject to unchanging change. The heritage purposes well in a steady-state natural environment, but is insecure in times of change. The function heritage is typified in government agencies, localized administration, public utilities and the public part in general. This sort of heritage finds it exceedingly tough to change rapidly. The function heritage is typified by rationality and size. (Martin, 2005).

The task culture:

This is characteristics of organisations which are engaged in comprehensive study and development undertakings they are much more dynamic. They are certainly subject to change and have to conceive provisional task groups to rendezvous their future needs. Information and know-how are the abilities that are of worth here. The heritage is comprised best by a snare or lattice work. There is close liaison between agencies, purposes and specialities, liaison, connection and integration are the entails where by the administration can foresee and acclimatize to change quickly. Influence in this group heritage is founded upon know-how and up-to-date data where the heritage is most in melody with results. The hazards for this heritage live when there is a limit in assets initiating it to become more power’ or ‘ role’ orientated (Martin, 2005).

The person culture:

This is characteristics of the agreement form of administration, where the persons inside the structure work out collectively the route which the administration pursues. If there is a formalised structure, it tends to service the desires of the persons inside the structure. Organisations which depict this heritage decline prescribed hierarchies for ‘ getting things done’ and live solely to rendezvous the desires of their members. The rejection of prescribed ‘ management control’ and ‘ reporting relationships’ proposes that this may be an apt heritage for a self-help assembly or a commune, etc., but it is not befitting for enterprise organisations (Martin, 2005).

5. 0 Conflict and Culture

Conflict management to support organizational discovering and long period effectiveness would need culture with support enquiry, risk taking, openness, varied viewpoints, relentless interrogating and investigation, and distributing ofdata and knowledge. This entails that workers will be boosted to take blame for their errors rather than of accusing other ones for their own errors or incompetence. Culture is a significant part of confrontation and confrontation resolution. Such as a heritage would boost functional or take-related confrontation and disappoint affective or emotive conflict. Power culture influence the conflict and culture as all the decision making is depend on one person and conflicts comes through as shown in the example below. For example, Honda Corporation boosts its workers to in an open way exterior and handle confrontation in an affirmative way. Honda retains a meeting, workers can open (but polite) in ascribe and dispute the rank quo. ” This is not an empty procedural but a crucial force in holding Honda on its toes. It endures an edgy, self-questioning air that one anticipates to glimpse in new ventures Pascale (1990).”

6. 0 Change Management

Change is a general influence. That is an unavoidable part or both communal and organizational life and we all aim to continual change of one pattern or another. Change can be revised in periods of its consequences at the one-by-one, assembly, and association, and humanity, nationwide or worldwide level. Organizational change can start with the supervisor of the reason, which can slow the development of a part, it can be applied in the exact principle alterations or program, or it can be developed by external weights. For example, an assembly of workers who work for a little telemarketer faced the owner: ” It is very hard for most of us to hold inflexible 8-to-5 work hours,” said their spokeswoman. ” We have significant family and individual responsibilities. And inflexible hours manage not work for us. We desire looking for someplace additional to work if you don’t set up flexible work hours.” The proprietor heard thought-fully to the group’s obligation and acquiesced to its request. The next day the proprietor presented a flexible design for his employees (Robbins, 2009).

6. 1 Kurt Lewin Model Of Change

Kurt Lewin suggested a three stage idea of change routinely mentioned to as Unfreeze, Change, Refreezing It is likely to take these phases to rather perplexing levels: Unfreezing: reducing those forces which hold demeanor in its present pattern, acknowledgement of the required for change and enhancement to occur. Unfreezing is a key first difficulty in the change method that engages boosting persons to eliminate vintage demeanor by agitating up the balance state that sustains the rank quo. Organizations often attempt unfreezing through eliminating the pays for present demeanor and displaying that present demeanor is not valued. Individuals accept change desires to happen by unfreezing. (Robbins, 2009)Movement:  development of new mind-set or demeanor and the bearing out of the change. in the going stage, the new mind-set, standards, and behaviors are restored for vintage ones. Organizations complete going through beginning newchoices and interpreting the cornerstone for the change, and by supplying teaching to assist workers evolve the new abilities they need. Employees should be granted the major dream for the change so that they can start their functions inside the new organizational structure and processes. (Robbins, 2009)C: UsersUserDesktop490AXP. GIFRefreezing: stabilizing change at the new level and propping up through carrying means, for demonstration principles, structure or norms. This is the last step in the change process. The new mind-set, standards, and behaviors are constructed as the new rank quo. The new modes of functioning are cemented in and reinforced. Managers should confirm the organizational heritage and correctpay schemes motivate the new demeanor and bypass paying the vintage modes of operating. (Robbins, 2009).

7. 0 Conflict and Change

In any organization, conflicts and changes are bound to occur. Whether these are constructive or destructive forces depends significantly on the supervisor’s skills in managing conflict and changes. Conflicts put some people under stress that may affect organizations productivity. Conflict and change are the first phase of change which is unfreezing. While making changes there can be conflict occur people are not satisfy with changes so it’s hard to start the unfreezing process by not enough data, feedback are negative and action planning cannot be started.

8. 0 Recommendations

After composing entire report, I sensed that an association will not evolve by without the altering management. Once the association have to face to change their administration that I suggest: Constructing of calibration and leadership commitment to achieve the suggested authorityModel aligned to allow the project sponsor and the state to support the creation of leadership. There should be some organizational changes to accomplish the suggested organizational structure of the functioning form and support the profiting function. Conversion and sustain the essential alterations to accomplish the vision Appropriate teaching and development programs to endow workers to achievement in new functioning environment. The peak managers should habitually broadcast with their workers that make clear where workers dissatisfy with the organization’s administration model. Involved in the change efforts, and taking into account the adoption or opposition to exact changes.

9. 0 Conclusion

In conclusion, conflict is a method, not an event due the confrontation happens between associations, constituents of groups, agencies and persons which are associations have to discuss to determination the conflicts. In each association, a key emblem in the relentless development, change is a significant source of livelihood of the companies.

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