Essay, 9 pages (2000 words)

The holistic development of individual education essay

There were some changes in KBSR, which are in the addition in curriculum and school culture. For the curriculum, there were introduction to three new subjects which are Living Skills, as replacement of Commerce Practice in 1984, Science, and local studies to replace Man and his Environment in 1994. Meanwhile for changes in subjects, there are few emphasizing to language subjects such as basic language and grammar skills. For Moral education, there were four more moral values were added and for Islamic education, there were addition of new area. Lastly, for Physical Education, there were inclusion of two new elements. In this school curriculum also emphasized on the school culture. School environment needed to be one that is conducive and stimulates learning. The school must also be responsible to develop patriotism among the students by infused that spirit into all subjects to produce Malaysians who love their country. Integration also was being more emphasize through values, language, science and technology across the curriculum. In the Integrated Primary School Curriculum (KBSR), there exist four principles to help achieve the objective of this curriculum which are integrated approach, holistic development of the individual, life-long learning and one education for all. Integrated approach means that according to City Chlor (2013), is an approach that combines all the aspects related to addressing the problem. The meaning of integrated approach itself means that an approach where knowledge, skills and values are combined to integrate the physical, emotional, spiritual, and intellectual aspects. The integrated approach can occurs through four ways. One is from skill cohesion. Skill cohesion is where in one subject, for instance the languages subject where there are four main skills needed which are speaking, listening, reading and writing that are being emphasized. In one teaching and learning session, cohesion of twos skill can be emphasizes together. For example, listening and speaking or listening and writing. Skill cohesion can also happen between subjects, such as using singing in teaching physical education and health science. Students may found that by using this attractive method, which is singing, the physical and health education may be deliver more efficiently to them. Integrated approach can also occurs by infusion. First is infusion between various knowledge area and across subjects. For example, mathematical elements is infused in teaching the arts. This means that not only students be excellent in arts, they can also learn Mathematics along the teaching and learning session. Infusion could also happen in a matter of teaching moral values in some subjects, such as emphasizing on co-operation and respect during group work or project. Another kind of integrated approach also can happen between integration of two elements. One of it is between curriculum and co-curriculum. For example, co-curricular activities such as uniformed bodies, clubs or societies, games or sport are complementary to curricular activities in the clubroom. The elements that can be integrated across the curriculum are moral values, environment, and language. The integration of two elements also can be between knowledge and practices. For instance, knowledge acquired in the classroom can be applied to situation in the home, society and so on. It is also can be applied from previous or new experiences of students to solve something in their respective situations. Another kind of integrated approach could be elements across the curriculum. This method consists of four examples which are language across the curriculum, environment across the curriculum, science across the curriculum, and thinking skills across the curriculum. How implemented in the classroom. The second principle of KBSR is holistic development of individual. The term of holistic development of individual means that elements that related to JERIS. In this principle, it emphasizes that all subjects play an important role in fulfilling the physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual needs of pupil. This principle also believe that individual potential cannot be developed in isolation because, each potential is highly indicate related to others. A pupil who is a potential skilled footballer needs to be develop knowledge and skills of the game, as well as nurture cooperation, devotion to game rules, discipline, and so on. The holistic development of individual can be based on Skinner’s Conditioning Theory. This theory is a study on behaviourist where respondent unconditioned behaviour responded to stimulus from the environment. For instance, if the students do their task well, and the teachers award them with praises, good grades, flattery words or presents instead of punishment the students will be encouraged to do every task given well because they know if the task done well, something good will be return to them. Same thing happened if the students done something bad and are given punishment, they will tend to never repeat that act again for they know they will be punished. This theory can control students’ behaviour easily and can predict their next action. This theory could also be apply during the teaching and learning lesson to ensure the process to be more effective. For example by using games during the lesson, students could learn in an interesting play and can get the lesson better because the games needed to play by rules and also have reward as well as punishment. Thus, the learning and teaching session could be done smoothly and the students will understand better. This technique also require a pupil-centred teaching, which is a good-thing, because this means that teachers will focus more on their students and make them involve in the teaching and learning session. This behaviourist theory also emphasize on the teachers as the role model to the students. While the activities is being conducted, teachers will lead the students through games and play so that the students could understand the rules better. The teachers’ well behaviour during the lesson would also be a model to the students. Another theory for holistic development of individual is from Carl Rogers, which is the Humanistic theory. A site by McLeod, S. (2012), stated that in this theory, Carl believe that, ” For a person to grow, they need an environment that could provide them with genuineness, acceptance and empathy. Without these value, the healthy relationship and personalities in leaners would not develop as they should.” According to Carl, for a person to reach their potential, a number of factors must be satisfied because learning is a result of affect, emotion and goal orientation. The principle of this theory is that to focus on individual uniqueness and differences. The students must have self-determination and motivation, thus means the teaching process itself must be a motivation to them because dreams and goals are vital for success. Examples how to develop co-curriculum activitiesImplication-Social interactionThe third principle of KBSR is life-long learning. This principle means that it starts from the time when we are born until we go back to our creator. The principle of life-long learner occurs continuously and is not restricted by time. The important of life-long learning is to enable students to face their daily life situations. Upon completing their schooling, this process does not stop. Each and every one of them will be encouraged to continue with their own learning. This principle will also nurture every pupil’s interest to pursue knowledge and contribute to the existing pool. The life-long learning principle also will requires the habit of wanting to and knowing how to pursue knowledge. However to achieve this principle in students, a teacher must understand first the way each student learns. There are three characteristics of learners which are visual, auditory and kinaesthetic. Based on the principle of KBSR, a teacher should develop their students according to their learning characteristics. A visual learner is students who learns better by using pictures, an auditory learner by using sounds while a kinaesthetic learner prefer to carry out physical activities. By understand these characteristics of learner, the life-long learning principle could be achieved. This is because the students may found the way their learning can be learn easily and could be used in their daily life. For example, a teacher could use this knowledge in teaching English class. Students may be bored easily if their learning style is not satisfied to. Therefore, by understand this knowledge a teacher may be creative to find the best way for each type of learners to learn new information by filtering what is to be learned. There is evidence of empirical and pedagogical problems related to the use of learning tasks to correspond to differences in a one-to-one style. As stated by Edurite (2013), students will learn better if taught in a method deemed appropriate for student learning styles. A visual learner is where according to Inspiration (2013), learn the ideas, concepts, data and other information related to the images and techniques. Graphic organizers are visual representations of knowledge, concepts, thoughts or ideas. To show the relationships between the parts, the symbols are linked with each other; words can be used to further clarify meaning. As claimed by Net-Bourn (2013), by presenting spatial information and images, students can focus on meaning, reorganize and group similar ideas easily and make better use of their visual memory. A review study concluded that using graphic organizers improves student performance in four areas. The first one is retention. In this area, students remember information better and can better recall it when it is represented and learned both visually and verbally. Second is reading comprehension where the use of graphic organizers helps improving the reading comprehension of students. Later is Student achievement in which students with and without learning disabilities improve achievement across content areas and grade levels. Lastly is thinking and learning skills that could be developed when students develop and use a graphic organizer their higher order thinking and critical thinking skills are enhanced. A teacher could manipulating this learning style by using visualizing data. As stated by Inspiration (2013) too, when working with data students develop literacy and explore data that they collect information in the process of dynamic queries, using charts and graphs visually inspect, manipulate and analyse data. As students explore the way data moves through various plot types, such as Venn, stack, pie and axis, they formulate questions and discover meaning from the visual representation. Meanwhile as stated in Reference. com (2013), an auditory learner rely on hearing and speech as a means of learning. Auditory learners must be able to hear what is being said in order to understand and may have difficulty with instructions that are written. They also use their listening and repeating skills to sort through the information that is sent to them. As Fleming, G (2013) stated, auditory learners may have a knack for knowing the true meaning of the words one hears an audible signal such as a change in tone. Therefore she stated, when they learn to be a better rote learning, auditory learners will call and then remember how it sounded back. Again as accordance by Fleming, G (2013), auditory learners know how to write an answer to the talk they have heard. They are also good at oral exams, effectively by listening to information delivered orally, in lectures, speeches, and oral sessions. Auditory learners too are good at storytelling. They solve problems by talking them through. A kinaesthetic learner is where students learning by doing things. Lessons will run better if students do physical activity, rather than listening to lectures or watching a demonstration, as accordance to Edurite (2013). They have realization through doing, rather than thinking before initiating action. As stated by Fark (2013) that when learning, helping students to move as this increases the understanding of the students, the students generally get better grades on tests when they can. According to Feira (2009), it is common for kinaesthetic learners to focus on two different things at the same time considering the matter in relation to what they were doing. In kinaesthetic learning, learning occurs by the learner using their body to express a thought, an idea or a concept. Again as stated by Edurite (2013), in the elementary class the students can excel because they need to move though that means high energy levels can cause nervous, restless or impatient. Kinaesthetic learners’ short- and long-term memories are strengthened by their use of movement. Role of school and teachersDeliver knowledge and skillsNurtue knowledge and reading culturescreate the learning cultureImplications in class-room practicesIndividualschoolThe last principle of KBSR is one education for all. In general, this principle consist of three parts which are communication, man and environment, and individual self-development. This three parts then consist of six components that are basic skills, spiritually, values and attitudes, living skills, art and health, and lastly co-curriculum. Divided into six componentsBasic skillsFocuses on 3 basic skills-3MPillars of basic education at primary school level. SpirituallyIslamic and Moral education aim to nurture and enhance pupil’s talents and potentials to enable them to become knowledgeable, religious, devout, noble in character and responsible persons. Values and attitudesScience – To produce individuals who are knowledgeable, skillful and of good character for our dynamic and progressive society which is enculturated in science and technology. Local studies – produce pupils who are loyal to and proud to be citizens of this country, beside been willing to make sacrifices to defend race and country. Living skillsAims to provide pupils with opportunities to acquire technology-based knowledge, basic practice skills, entrepreneurship and self-management. Arts and healthArts edu. : provide opportunities for pupil involvement in various art activities. Physical & health edu. : emphasis is given to stay healthy and active. Co-curriculumConducted out of the school time-table and based on planned physical activities. 3 aspects: Uniformed unitsSocieties and clubsSports and gamesSame school level and same exam levelNational examHow this area help teachers to nurture the students (how it is applied in class)Impications

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