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The different types of media media essay

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DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENTINDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENTSTUDY SKILLS IN ENGLISHCSE (101)Name

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Megala a/p Tamby RajaIC

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PP10385Batch No

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1101CAMPUS

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PENANGWORD COUNT

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2001

1. 0Introduction

In general, ” media” refers to various means of communication. For example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies. In the computer world, ” media” is also used as a collective noun, but refers to different types of data storage options. Computer media can be hard drives, removable drives (such as Zip disks), CD-ROM or CD-R discs, DVDs, flash memory, USB drives, and yes, floppy disks. For example, if you want to bring your pictures from your digital camera into a photo processing store, they might ask you what kind of media your pictures are stored. Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queuing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. Public transport (North American English: public transportation or public transit) is a shared passenger transport service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement. Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams and trains, rapid transit(metro, subways, undergrounds) and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines, coaches, and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world.

Question 1

In general, ” media” refers to various means of communication. For example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies.

The Different Types of Media

Daily Newspapers

The 1600-plus daily newspapers – ” dailies” – in the United States provide an estimated 113 million individuals with their primary source of news every day. Dailies appear in morning and/or evening editions seven days a week. Daily newspapers cover national, state, and local education initiatives; elementary and secondary school education; and other related topics from many different angles – from writing a profile on a state education leader to covering a local school board meeting. The better you understand the various ways dailies can cover a story, the more successful you will be as a spokesperson and the more likely you will be to generate solid media and community attention to your program.

Weekly Newspapers

Weekly newspapers (or ” weeklies”) are usually either suburban papers found in close proximity to large cities or rural papers that provide isolated areas with a link to the nearest town or county seat. They may be offered for sale at newsstands, by subscription, or distributed free of charge. Weeklies primarily focus on events and issues that are directly tied to the communities they serve. Most weeklies also offer a calendar of area events. Contact the calendar editor about upcoming community meetings or other events. Many weeklies are understaffed and have a limited ability to leave the news room to cover events, so often the reporters will write stories from press releases or interviews.

Wire Services

Wire services, such as the Associated Press (AP) or Reuters, are national or international news organizations that provide print and broadcast media around the country with up-to-the-minute news. The information is transmitted directly into the news room through telephone lines, microwave signals, or other electronic means of delivery. Wire stories, especially those concerning out-of-town news, are frequently picked up and run verbatim by print and broadcast outlets. Mid-size and smaller news organizations rely heavily on the wires for coverage outside of their areas. Every large news organization subscribes to at least one wire service to keep abreast of news and to back up its own operations. For that reason, it is critical to be included in wire story coverage. In addition to breaking news, wires also run general news articles, special features on human interest stories, and columns by well-known reporters. Here are some tips on how wire services work: Wire service bureaus are typically located in larger cities, but they frequently use ” stringers” (local reporters) to cover news in other areas. All publicity materials should go to the nearest wire service bureaus and/or their local ” stringer.” Associated Press has radio bureaus that transmit stories to stations regionally and nationally. Many states have radio networks, too. Consult a local media directory to determine the names of local news services and the issues they cover.

Magazines

Magazines generally offer more comprehensive, indepth coverage of a subject than newspapers. Consequently, they also demand longer leadtimes. Getting covered in a magazine usually requires advance planning and a proactive media strategy. Many magazines have editorial calendars, which provide information about special issues or features planned for the year. To find out what a magazine has planned, request an editorial calendar from the magazine’s advertising department at the beginning of each year. Become familiar with the regular features that appears in every issue and thinks about where and how a story about your community college’s efforts to provide a quality education for all students might fit into their format. The editors are always looking for information that will be newsworthy when the magazine is published.

Television

Think ” pictures” when you think of television news. Television is different from all other media in that it demands visual presentation of your message. To succeed in generating TV coverage for stories related to the Centennial and community colleges at large, you must be able to differentiate between print and TV stories. For example, the image of parents and teachers staging a demonstration in a classroom or students working with innovative technology is more likely to attract a TV crew than ” talking heads” announcing the Centennial at a news conference. Beyond simply identifying which of your events will be appropriate for TV coverage, try to devise creative ways to enrich the visual aspects of the story you are trying to tell. Stage visually appealing events and highlight opportunities for television reporters to show people in action – teachers and students engaged in creative and engaging lessons, students volunteering in the community or business leaders mentoring students on your campus. To maximize your use of television, remember that this medium provides a dual route for conveying your message – through the spoken word and through images. Consider the backdrop at a news conference. Encourage participants at your events to wear your college t-shirts and buttons or carry banners or signs to increase visibility and recognition. Although air time on TV newscasts is limited, local stations usually have at least three scheduled news broadcasts a day where you can seek coverage – one at noon, another in the late afternoon or early evening (between 4: 006: 00 p. m.), and a final report around 10: 00-11: 00 p. m. Generally, noon and late afternoon broadcasts report ” lighter” news – special segments and human interest stories – while the early evening broadcasts serve as the station’s primary newscasts. The late news is usually a final update of the day’s events.

Radio

The influence of radio broadcasters in the daily lives of Americans is often grossly underestimated and occasionally altogether overlooked by even the most experienced media strategists. Radio is often described as the ” captive electronic medium” because it reaches people while they are doing other things in their cars, on the way to and from work, in their homes and offices, even while they exercise with Walkman. Radio programming offers a variety of formats for communicating to a number of distinct audiences. Each radio station offers regular and special programming combinations. News programs provide a vehicle for releasing important and breaking news. Radio newscasts usually air at least twice every hour, allowing your statement to be edited into many sound bites for repeated use throughout the day. Regularly scheduled programs (interviews, talk shows, etc.) provide a public platform to discuss education reform and your community’s efforts to achieve education goals in greater length and detail than in normal radio newscasts – which are generally very brief.

Comparison on Sports. SMEs and Trading Companies

Advertising has long been the major revenue generator for media companies. The advertising industry utilizes nearly every communication channel available to make their clients’ products and services known. Major mediums for advertising include television, radio, print media, and to an increasingly large degree, the internet. Other platforms for advertising include public advertisements like billboards (both traditional and digital) and city busses. The development of internet advertising has had a very significant impact on the advertising industry and has created some trouble for many media companies that rely on traditional advertising platforms.

Question 2

Traffic congestion is getting worse throughout the country and is becoming a major concern. Anti-road groups often cite traffic congestion as one of the biggest problems caused by rapid growth of neighbourhoods and communities. These anti-growth groups advocate policies to restrict road-capacity improvements and devote that funding instead to transit, bicycling, and other alternatives to driving. The best way to reduce traffic congestion, however, is through better long-term regional planning that incorporates a comprehensive approach to expand and improve all aspects of our nation’s transportation system. Heavy traffic is causing an enormous trouble to every living human on earth. Not only the drivers find it annoying, passengers who commute by public transport define it time-consuming, and even pedestrians need to be extremely cautious when crossing the street. Therefore, some actions can be taken in order to tackle the problem. One suggestion is that the government could promote the use of public vehicles. For example, they could give a discount to those who manage to commute by bus or subway for their main means of transportation. Eventually, the amount of vehicles driving on a certain time would decrease for sure. Also, for those who can reach their destination in thirty minutes on foot, should be encouraged to walk. Another solution is that the local governments could expand the number of lanes each way to relieve congestion or even build a new highway. For some companies, it can be appealing to the workers if their bosses postpone the time to arrive at work and dismiss them earlier in the afternoon. This way the heavy traffic could certainly be alleviated as there will not be so many vehicles on road at the same time. Lastly, a fine could be charged if a car goes on road with still many seats vacant. It may be unfair to small families, but families with larger members will participate more in helping to solve this problem which has become a global issue. Nowadays, people use more private car, which leads to more cars on the road, heavy traffic jam and air pollution. These problems always happen especially in the cities. I agree with the way to solve this problem by encourage people to use public transportation instead of using private cars because it is the best and easy way that people can do. Using public transportation saves a lot of money. Firstly, people do not have to buy their own cars. When it comes to prices, the fare for buses or taxis is cheaper than private cars when compared bus fare to the oil price. Accordingly, people do not have to spend lots of money on gas that they have to fill the tank. Also, they do not have to find a place for parking as well. Moreover, using less private cars saves environment and people’s health as well. It causes less air pollution because carbon dioxide that released from cars is decreased. As all people know that carbon dioxide can harm people’s health, if less carbon dioxide release to the environment, people do not have to breathe polluted air inevitably. Furthermore, there will have no heavy traffic jam because people use more public transportation. Even though it is a waste of time that people have to wait for a buses, taxis, subway or sky train, it will not take people a long time to reach their destination because public transportation nowadays are developed to be faster and more convenient for citizens. Therefore, these are the reasons why I agree with the way to decrease congestion and air pollution by encourage people to use less private cars and turn to use more public transportation that government provided. Reducing private car use not only requires improvements in public transit, cycling, and walking facilities, but also better management of private automobile use. ITDP believes that traffic management solutions that regulate parking and charge motorists for driving in city centres have the greatest potential to reduce traffic congestion.  By coaxing people out of their cars, cities can reduce CO2 emissions and air pollution, increase public transit ridership, and enjoy safer and more liveable urban environments, with less time wasted in congestion.

Benefits of using Public Transport

Saves you money: According to ” The Transit Savings Report,” a monthly report issued by the American Public Transportation Association, public transportation users can save an average of $764 per month, or about $9, 167 annually. (Based on a national average gas price of $2. 628 and monthly unreserved parking space cost. Helps protect the environment.  Automobile emissions contribute to smog, global warming and public health problems. By helping to reduce the number of cars on the road, public transportation offers many benefits to the environment. Cars account for about 50 present of air pollution nationwide. Each year, public transportation use avoids the emission of more than 126 million pounds of hydrocarbons, the primary cause of smog, and 156 million pounds of nitrogen oxides, which can cause respiratory disease. Public transit vehicles emit fewer pollutants than single-passenger automobiles. For example, buses emit 80 present less carbon monoxide than a car. Rail emits almost none. Public transportation helps reduce dependence on foreign oil, reducing auto fuel consumption by 1. 5 billion gallons annually. Many U. S. transit systems are continuing to invest in compressed natural gas, low-sulphur burning buses or diesel-electric hybrid buses. Reduces traffic congestion: Traffic conditions are already bad. But if it wasn’t for public transportation, roadways would be completely overwhelmed.

Conclusion

Consequently, they may be open to use public transport more regularly, especially if they also consider the many problems caused by massive car use. However, since they already use their car selectively, they may not be able to reduce their car use (even) more. Many efforts are needed to stimulate fervent car use to travel by public transport, because in their view, public transport can surely not compete with their private car. In this case, policies should be aimed at reducing the functional, psychological and cultural values of private cars, as well as at increasing the performances of public transport (and other alternative modes of transport) on these aspects. Next, they should consider the problems of car use when making travel mode choices.

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