Research Paper, 3 pages (550 words)

The aging musculoskeletal system

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Osteoporosis is a disease that is described by low bone mass and loss of bone tissue basically thinning of the bones that lead to weak and fragile bones. Bones are always in a state of changing where new bone tissues are replacing the old bone tissue in order to keep the strength. It affects men and women but it is usually a disease that affects mostly women. However, when someone is diagnosed with osteoporosis it means that the bone tissue and mass are not replaced as fast with new bone tissue which is one factor of osteoporosis. Another factor that causes osteoporosis is a deficiency in estrogen which typically occurs in menopause causing low bone density because of the drop of estrogen. The probable effects on the everyday life of an 84- year old thin white female may be critical. Since the bones become so thin and have low bone density, a minor fall can cause a fracture. Osteoarthritis Of all bone deficiencies osteoarthritis is the most common.

It typically comes with aging and wearing of the joints. The joints have protective cartilage(cushion that separates the joint from the bone) on the end of your bones that once you get older wear down damaging the joints. It affects both men and women. Generally, before the age of 45, it affects men and affects women normally after the age of 55. The causes of osteoarthritis are not due to injury or wear and tear of the joint although can have an increase in the severity but mostly has to do with the natural aging of the joint. It mostly affects the hands, feet, knees, and hips. In an 84-year-old thin white female osteoarthritis can be painful. Stiffness is a symptom of osteoarthritis which causes pain after the inactivity of the joint after a period of time. Muscular Atrophy Muscular atrophy unlike the other diseases I’ve mentioned is specifically targeted at the muscles. It is a disorder that causes progressive deterioration and weakness of the muscles. There are different types of muscular atrophy. There are 3 types that affect children before they turn 1.

The most severe of them all occurs before birth, around 30-36 weeks of pregnancy which is called Type 0. The other two types I and II which affect that child at birth or around the first few months. In adults, there are two types. Those types are the Finkel type and Type IV which usually affect adults after age 30. Muscular atrophy occurs generally with age, however, it can also be caused by injury, birth defects, stroke. Spinal cord injury and sometimes can occur due to osteoarthritis. An 84- year old white, thin small boned white female with muscular atrophy can have back pain, walking problems, and limited range of motion which are some of the many symptoms of the disease.


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  5. ” Spinal muscular atrophy” A Dictionary of Biomedicine. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. ITT Educational Services. 27 April 2012
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