Research Paper, 10 pages (2500 words)

Red cross

It is an international organization concerned with the alleviation of human suffering and the promotion of publichealth; the world-recognized symbols of mercy and absolute neutrality are the Red Cross, the Red Crescent, and the Red Crystal flags and emblems. – It is an international humanitarian organization (Red Cross Society) formally established by the Geneva Convention of 1864. It was originally limited to providing medical care for war casualties, but its services now include liaison between prisoners of war and their families, relief to victims of natural disasters, etc.


  • Humanity

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of a desire to bring assistance withoutdiscriminationto the wounded on the battlefield, endeavours, in its international and national capacity, to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found. Its purpose is to protect human life and health and to ensurerespectfor thehuman being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all people.

  • Impartiality

It makes no discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided soley by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress.

  • Neutrality

In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature.

  • Independence

The Movement is independent.

The National Societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement.

  • Humanity

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavours, in its international and national capacity, to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found.

Its purpose is to protect human life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all people.

  • Voluntary service

It is a voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desire for gain.

  • Unity

There can be only one Red Cross or one Red Crescent Society in any one country. It must be open to all. It must carry its humanitarian work throughout its territory.

  • Universality

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

In which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other, is worldwide.

Blood Donation Program

Although all blood is made of the same basic elements, not all blood is alike. In fact, there are eight different common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens – substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient’s immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching.

There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells:

  • Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group B – has only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)
  • Group AB – has both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group O – has neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)

The approximate distribution of blood types in Philippine population is as follows:

  • O Rh positive – 44-46%
  • A Rh positive – 22-23%
  • B Rh positive – 24-25%
  • AB Rh positive – 4-6%
  • Rh negative – ; 1%

There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion:

  • Group O – can donate RBC to anybody. It’s the Universal Donor. Recipients: O, A, B, AB
  • Group A – can donate RBC to A’s and AB’s.
  • Group B – can donate RBC to B’s and AB’s.
  • Group AB – can donate to other AB’s but can receive from all others. It’s the Universal Recipient.

In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent ( – ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh positive blood or Rh negative blood may be given to Rh positive patients.

  • The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood type.
  • The universal plasma donor has Type AB positive blood type.

Who Can Donate Blood?

Anyone who:

  • is in good health
  • is between 16 to 65 years old (16 and 17 years old need parents consent);
  • weighs at least 110 pounds; has a blood pressure between: Systolic: 90-160 mmHg, Diastolic: 60-100 mmHg; and
  • pass the physical and health history assessments.

Emergency Tool Kit for Red Cross

It is a tool kit designed to provide emergency response agencies with the series of planning tools to help prepare their personnel and their families for emergencies.

  • Plastic laminated ID card forfamilymember(s) with special concerns. Indicate name, address, phone, who to call in case of emergency, contact details, the condition of the bearer and special instructions on what to do in case seen unconscious (e. . diabetic). For children who cannot speak, they must also wear the ID card (in case they are reported missing, anyone who will find them will be able to contact their parents).
  • Emergency numbers to call (Red Cross Opcen, Red Cross Chapter, fire station, hospital, etc. ) – to seek for immediate help in cases of emergencies.
  • Red Cross 143 Emergency / Disaster Guide explaining what to do in various types of disasters. These should be thoroughly studied and understood before the actual disaster but must be kept for reference. (Teach all family members how to use it). so that they have an idea of what to do in case of disaster or calamities.
  • Maps with indication of evacuation sites and routes – so that they can transfer immediately in case of calamaties.
  • Whistle (This is highly suggested, use a whistle that is loud and has a compass on it. ) – serves as an alarm, for everybody to get ready. – Flashlight with extra batteries (self-powered flashlight is suggested) – source of light when electricity is not working
  • Multi-purpose knife – protection

Matches or lighter and candles (Do not use matches or candles until you are certain there are no gas leaks.

There are commercially available waterproof matches.

  • source of light when electricity is not working
  • AM radio transistor with extra batteries or self-powered
  • need to monitor the news continuously to know the weather condition and any possible threats
  • Glow sticks – source of light when electricity is not working
  • Plastic sheeting or garbage bag
  • For floor mats, cover items so as not to get wet, or use as a rain coat. )
  • Heating blankets – thin, easy to carry and warm
  • Ropes – used as a tie
  • Sleeping bag – promote comfort when sleeping at the evacuation center

First Aid Kit (Standard)

The risk of accident or emergency cannot be taken for granted. It is important to be prepared. Always have a first aid kit on hand. First Aid is a life saving skill. Once you know how to apply first aid correctly, you can help save lives. Call the Philippine Red Cross National Headquarters or the local Chapters for the following First Aid Kit items:

  • 1 Adhesive Strips (Pk50) –used to close small wounds
  • 1 Hypo – Allergenic medical tape 1. 25cm x 9. 1m – provide safety and comfort for adhesion to at risk skin.
  • 1 Conforming Bandage 5cm – promote a comfortable bandage
  • 1 Triangular Bandage 110cm x 110cm – used as a sling on arm injuries
  • 1 Wound Dressing No. 15 – prevent exposure of wound
  • 2 Swabs Antiseptic – disinfects skin surface
  • 1 Tweezers metal 8cm – used to grasp small objects
  • 1 Scissors disposable – used to cut
  • 1 Safety pins – assorted (pk12) – used to secure something
  • 1 Plastic Bags – resealable – 100 X 180 mm – used as a bag
  • 1 Plastic Bags – resealable – 150 x 230 mm – used as a bag
  • 2 Gloves – disposable – used in handling wounds
  • 1 First Aid Quick Reference Guide – used to know how to do first aid correctly.

Red Cross is an international organization concerned with the alleviation of human suffering and the promotion of public health; the world-recognized symbols of mercy and absolute neutrality are the Red Cross, the Red Crescent, and the Red Crystal flags and emblems. Red Cross has a Blood Donation Program. Donating blood is a safe process. A sterile needle is used only once for each donor and then discarded. Blood donation is a simple four-step process: registration, medical history and mini-physical, donation and refreshments.

Every blood donor is given a mini-physical, checking the donor’s temperature, blood pressure, pulse and hemoglobin to ensure it is safe for the donor to give blood. The actual blood donation typically takes less than 10-12 minutes. The entire process, from the time you arrive to the time you leave, takes about an hour and 15 min. All donated blood is tested for HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis and other infectious diseases before it can be released to hospitals. There are four types of transfusable products that can be derived from blood: red cells, platelets, plasma and cryoprecipitate.

Typically, two or three of these are produced from a pint of donated whole blood – hence each donation can help save up to three lives. Donors can give either whole blood or specific blood components only. The process of donating specific blood components – red cells, plasma or platelets – is called apheresis. One transfusion dose of platelets can be obtained through one apheresis donation of platelets or by combining the platelets derived from five whole blood donations. Most donated red blood cells must be used within 42 days of collection. Donated platelets must be used within five days of collection – new donations are constantly needed.

Plasma and cryoprecipitate are stored in frozen state and can be used for up to one year after collection. Healthy bone marrow makes a constant supply of red cells, plasma and platelets. The body will replenish the elements given during a blood donation – some in a matter of hours and others in a matter of weeks. More than 44, 000 blood donations are needed every day. The average red blood cell transfusion is approximately 3 pints. A single car accident victim can require as many as 100 pints of blood. The blood type most often requested by hospitals is Type O.

Article Philippine Red Cross Calls for more Blood Donors

Jun 30th, 2012 by CityBlogs. by Felipo David G. Malcampo ZAMBOANGA CITY ? Philippine Red Cross (PRC) – Zamboanga City Blood Bank Manager Dr. Kelly Geronimo called on the public to donate blood to ensure regular supply for those in need. In aninterviewwith Dr. Geronimo during the PIA Media Forum, he said there is a need for more blood donors to effectively serve the public as blood demand increased dramatically after Philippine Red Cross-Zamboanga City was declared the Regional Blood Bank. ? We noted an increase in the demand for blood since we now also serve Sulu, Basilan, and Zamboanga Sibugay, our three big neighboring provinces.

Actually, the demand has tripled. The challenge here is how to meet the demand, and so we are reaching out to others for more donation, Dr. Geronimo said. However, Dr. Geronimo clarified that there is enough supply in the blood bank. ? We have enough supply of blood. But we need to have consistent blood donation to make sure we can serve those in need. Our advocacy is for more people to donate blood, he said. PRC-Zamboanga City Administrator Vic Liozo said they have intensified theireducationcampaign on blood donation. ? We are going to barangays to educate the public on blood donation.

In fact, we assigned a Donor Equipment Officer whose sole function is to encourage people to donate blood, Mr. Liozo said. As a result of their advocacy, PRC noted an increase in the number of voluntary blood donation in the city. From, 2010 to 2011, and even up to the first half of this year, we have noted an increase in the number of voluntary blood donation here. It’s actually a good improvement, and we hope to sustain this momentum, Dr. Geronimo said. Mr. Liozo added that their advocacy program now extends even to elementary pupils. We are inculcating in the minds of these young children the importance of donating blood.

We tap them to recruit blood donors. It can be their parents, brothers or relatives who are qualified to donate blood, Liozo said. Since July is Blood Donors Month, the Red Cross has scheduled lots of blood-letting donation for the entire month in schools and other offices here. ? We have lined up blood-letting activities for the whole month of July. This will ensure that we will have enough, or even excess supply of blood in our bank. There will be simultaneous blood-letting activities in the entire country. There will be saturation of blood-letting activities next month”, Liozo said.

Article source: http://www. zambotimes. com/archives/48938-Philippine-Red-Cross-calls-f or-more-blood-donors. html III. Discussion and Reaction on Critical Issues Supply and demand play a huge role in blood production, and many times you will hear about blood shortages. It seems that these cries of scarcity are louder and louder every year. Why is it that there isn’t enough donors to keep the blood banks full like we would like to? Why is that bloods are in demand? Based on my research, 96% of us rely on the other 4% to give blood. There is a tremendous need of blood in hospitals.

Many patients die because they are not able to cope with blood losses. The blood donated is used to replace blood during injury or accidents, major surgeries, help patients with blood disorders like hemophilia to survive, to help burnt patient replace plasma loss, raise hemoglobin levels on patients with chronic illnesses like cancer, kidney disease, anemia, and others. The Philippine Red Cross encouraged people to donate blood to avoid occurrence of blood shortage. They also go from school to school. It’s a good idea that they are starting to educate the young children about the importance of donating blood.

Being aware to what is happening in this world is very important, as human, we live with obligations, one, is to care for others. By means of donating blood, we can save lives. We don’t know how many lives will be saved because of our blood donation. If we came to think about, there are so many people qualified in the blood donation program, and besides, donating blood won’t harm them; it will only cause a short-term and temporary headache or body weakness. And according to my research, those adverse effects or disturbances during and after the blood donations can be reduced or minimized.

People may be afraid of donating blood because of lack of knowledge. Information dissemination or lecture must be done first so that their queries about it will be answered. I believethat after the lectures, there will be an increase in the blood donors because their fears of the unknown will be lessened. It’s a nice thing that the officials are doing their part to help increase the blood supply in our country. The Philippine Red Cross cannot do the entire job; they need some volunteers to inform everybody if possible the importance of blood donation.

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