- Published: January 26, 2022
- Updated: January 26, 2022
- Language: English
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associative learninglearning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequencesstimulusany event or situation that evokes a response ONPSYCHOLOGY TEST: LEARNING & MEMORY SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder Nowcognitive learningthe acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or though language. classical conditioninga type of learning in which we learn to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. acquisitionin classical conditioning, the initial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned responseextinctionin classical conditioning, the weakening of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulusspontaneous recoverythe reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned responsegeneralizationin classical conditioning, the tendency, after conditioning, to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulusdiscriminationin classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimulioperant conditioninga type of learning im which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisherreinforcementin operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it followsshapingan operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide actions closer and closer toward a desired behaviorpositive reinforcementincreases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is anything that when presented after a response, strengthens the responsenegative reinforcementincreases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is anything that, when removed after a response, strengthens the responseprimary reinforceran event that is innately reinforcing, often by satisfying a biological needconditioned reinforceran event that gains its reinforcing power through its link with a primary reinforcerpartial (intermittent) reinforcementreinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcementpunishmentan event that decreases the behavior it followsrespondent behaviorbehavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulusoperant behaviorbehavior that operates on the environment, producing consequencesbehaviorismthe view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)cognitive mapA mental image of the layout of one’s environmentlatent learninglearning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate itintrinsic motivationa desire to perform a behavior for it’s own sakeextrinsic motivationa desire to perform a behavior to gain a reward or avoid a punishmentobservational learninglearning by observing othersmodelingthe process of observing and imitating a specific behaviorrehearsalthe conscious of repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storagespacing effectthe tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practiceserial position effectthe tendency to recall best the the last and first items in a listrecallmemory demonstrated by retrieving information learned earlier, as on fill-in-the-blank testrecognitionmemory demonstrated by identifying items previously learned, as on multiple-choice testrelearningmemory demonstrated by time saved when learning material a second timeretrieval cueany stimulus linked to a specific memorydeja vuthat eerie sens that ” I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experiencemood-congruent memorythe tendency to recall experiments that are consistent with your good or bad moodinterferencethe blocking of a recall as old or new learning disrupts the recall of other memoriesrepressionin psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banished from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety. misinformation effecta memory that has been corrupted by misleading informationsource amnesiafaulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined.
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