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Psych chap 8 memory

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visual encodingthe encoding of picture imagesmnemonicsmemory aids, especially those techniques that5 use vivid imagery and organization devices (make a song) ONPSYCH CHAP 8 MEMORY SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder Nowacoustic encodingthe encoding of sound, especially the sound of wordssemantic encodingthe encoding of meaning, including the meaning of wordsWayne Wickelgren” The time you spend thinking about material you are reading and rlating it to previously stored material is about the most useful thing you can do in learning any new subject matter.” chunkingorganizing items into familiar manageable units, often automaticallysensory memoryusing the senses to retain informationiconic memorya momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a secondechoic memorya momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 secondsworking/short-term memorylimited not only in duration but also in capacity, typically storing 7 bits of informationGeorge Millermagical number 7, plus or minus 2 (phone number with area code more difficult to remember) at any given moment we can only process a certain amount of informationlong-term memoryour capacity for storing long-term energy is essentially limitlessflashbulb memorya clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event (when sudden stress hormones are flowing, older memories are blockedKarl Lasheymemories do not reside in single specific spots (he trained rats to find their way out of a maze, then cut out parts of cortexes, no matter which brain section was removed, the rats retained partial memory of the mazeEric Kandel and James SchartzAPLYSIA California seas slug 20, 000 nerve cells are unusually large and accessible – enabling researches to observe synaptic changes during learning. When learning occurs the slug releases more of the neurotransmitters serotonin and becomes more efficient at transmitting signalslong-term potentiation LTPan increase in a synapse’s firing potential after a brief rapid stimulation, believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. (drugs that block LPT interfere with learning and enhanced LTP increases learning)stress hormones and memorywhen excited or stressed hormones make more glucose energy available to fuel brain activity, signaling the brain that something important has happened. The amygdala boosts activity and available protiens in the brains memory forming areas (stronger emotional experiences make for stronger more reliable memories)

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