- Published: January 26, 2022
- Updated: January 26, 2022
- Language: English
- Downloads: 30
The overpopulation means a condition or situation in which the number of people exceeds than the carrying capacity. According to David B.
Grigg, overpopulation refers to “ a condition in which the density enlarges to a limit that provokes the environmental deterioration, a drop in the quality of life, or a population collapse” (Grigg, 1980). Hence we could say the over population as it is the more than of certain entrance limits of the general population thickness when the ecological resources fail to meet the necessities of individual organisms like protection, nourishment etc. This paper discusses the condition of overpopulation in relation to variables such as population growth rate and age structure. The paper also throws lights on the reasons for overpopulation and attempts to discuss the related variables such as difference in age structures, fertility rate, and infant mortality rate and so on. Significance of the topic In order to give a brief detail about the topic, the country India is selected for discussion and the same is compared with USA and UK. It gives a clear picture about overpopulation and its related rates.
India is a fastest growing economy in the world, though it has been maintained stability in its economic growth, political and other financial condition. Her GDP growth rate finds a growing position and maintained approximately 8% growth rate. Similarly the standard of living, education and infrastructure also improved at tremendous way. Over population in India India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and having its GDP growth rate 10.
4% in the third quarter of the fiscal year 2003-20004. Her economy has made the global policy of open economy since 1991. The country is the second most populous one in the world after china. It has 2.
45 of the worlds land area and 16% of the world’s population (Indian Institute of Public Administration). In the last 40 years, her population has doubled. Although 83% of the people are belongs to the Hindu community and it is also home for more than 120 million Muslims and considered as one of the largest Muslim population in the world. And the total population is also includes Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists and paresis.
Within the broad categories of religion, castes and sub castes, their relative status is various from state to state as well as region to region. Population growth rate The growth rate of population in a country depends on the birth over deaths and the balance of migrants who are entering and leaving the country. The growth rate factor depicts that how a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure, resources and jobs. Fertility rate in India The fertility rate gives a figure for the average number of children that be born per woman.
The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to birth per woman. The fertility rate in India is 2. 76 by the end of 2008. And it finds a negative growth of -1. 78%, when compared to the previous year of 2007. Infant mortality rate It gives the rate of number of deaths of infants .
The rate is 32. 31 per 1000 live birth in India by the end of 2008. It is very low when compared to the year of 2007. Immigration rate This includes the figure for the disparity between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, 000 persons. The actual rate is -0. 05 migrants by the end of 2008 and ranks into 86.
Reason for the overpopulation in India India is the overpopulated state and mainly having two important reasons for overpopulation. That is swamped government and exhausted environment. The government is inadequate to satisfy or to suit its needs; it is following the old custom of treatment and practices. So even if the size of population is very large; it doesn’t matter, but the government should ready to provide the entire necessary infrastructure to avoid the defections. Indian economy at the time of pre-independence is fairly stable and constant.
The high birth rate commonly associated with high death rate that is both are equal. The main reason was lack of developments in the field of Medicine, Infrastructure, socio- economic conditions etc. The nature itself balances population rate through flood, drought, and some dangerous disease. But after the independence, Indian economy has been changing from time to time.
The infrastructural facilities like medicine, road, education, water etc were found tremendous improvement. Due to the overall improvement, the population number has been increased year by year. Mortality rates dropped without a corresponding drop in birth rate. However the birth rate continuously dropped since 1966 and yet doesn’t show that it is enough to deal with the problem. The infant mortality was high in the pre independence, but it is relatively high now and lowers than survival rate.
Totally they covered with the fear of communicable diseases and child death. The consequences of the overpopulation will be very serious in the future days. That is India cannot afford to have 1. 5 billion people by the end of 2040, still we be only 2.
4% of the world’s surface. The main consumption resources like food item may find inadequacy in near future. Differences in age structure in India One of the most important characteristics of the population composition is age structure. With age almost all characteristics will vary and it will be an important component of population analysis. The available data are more useful when it is classified by the variables like marital status, education and the economic activity. The age structure of population really affects a nation’s key socio and economic aspects.
To give a proper solution to it the country should make a reasonable investment in the respective field. And the age structure is used to predict the political factor also. In India the percentage of people between the age group 0-14 years is 31. 5% that is 189, 238, 487 male and 172, 168, 306 females.
The age group between 15-64 year is 63. 3% and the above 65year is 5. 2%. The census data of 2001 shows the matrimonial status of persons, that 513 million out of a billion populations have reported as ‘ never married’. The married comprise about 45. 6% of the total population.
The total figure of the widowed person are 44 million, majority are female. This percentage is elevated due to the lower female marriage in many parts of the nation.
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