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Modernization theory

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MODERNIZATION THEORY Introduction: Modernization is an inherently optimistic concept for it assumes that all countries eventually experience economic growth. This optimistic must be understood in the historical context of post war prosperity and growth in the north and independence of many southern colonies along with the growth of national markets and trades. The theory of modernization turns out into the high mass consumption and urbanization. The theory of economic growth is an alternative to Marxist theory. Meaning and history of modernization theory:

Modernization theory is a collection of perspective which, while at their most intellectually influential in the 1950s and 1960s. Along with the growth of national markets, made nineteenth century capitalists much more effective and ambitious than any of other forebears; hence the so-called ‘ industrial revolution’. Definition of modernization: 1. Modernization theory is the theory used to summarize modern transformations of social life. 2. Historically modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in the Western Europe. Eisenstadt-1966) Theoretical origins of modernization: The theory of modernization has its roots in the ideas of some scholars they produced different theories about the origins, characters, and future path of modern industrial society. Which we can now examine closely: Emile Durkheim: Durkheim proposes that there are two types of society ‘ traditional’ and ‘ modern’ society, which have different forms of social cohesion between their members. The people of the traditional society perform the limited tasks of a simple agrarian community based on group of families and clan in village settlements.

Each group though a similar to all others thinks, believes and life styles are relatively self-contained. Its members perform all the required rules of farming, childrearing, social control defiance and so on. Each group is then a sort of segment, a discreet unit in a large society; hence durkheim also called this a ‘ segmental’ society. The traditional society is contrasted with the modern society- in whichever increasing numbers and density of the 0f the population. This leads to a more people competing for relatively scarce resources.

When competition becomes the fiercest, a social resolution to these problems had to emerge and this creates a gradual increase in social division of labor. Social differentiation occurs as a specialized institution are formed by people to deal with particular need of society such as religious, economic, political, educational and so on. The modern society is more cultured and less rigid and allows more scope for individual frustrations andhappiness. Durkheim called this society “ organic society’.

Max weber: max weber sought to explain the emergence of industrialization, though he focused his attention on answering why capitalist manufacturing became dominate only in the economy of western. The basic explanation for this occurrence was the existence of cultural processes namely rationalization. Weber suggested this was not an easy or natural form of behavior; one of the important factors that promoted this work ‘ ethic’ was according to weber not economic but religious.

His beliefs that as western society has developed, more and more of its members act in ways that are guided by the principals of rationality and less by custom of tradition. He sees the coming of the modern era as sciatic birth of individual as a relatively free agent not about by rigid. Walt whitman Rostow: rostow illustrates the concept of modernization per excellence. in his work on economic growth (rostow-1960a; 1960b) the form of growth experience in north are taken as a model for the rest of the world, while economic are situated at different stages of development all are assumed be moving to the same direction.

Traditional society is poor, irrational and rural. The take off stage requires a leap forward, based ontechnologyand high levels of investment; preconditions for this the development of the infrastructure, manufacturing and effective government. After this the societies reach a stage of self-sustaining growth, in its mature stage technology pervades the whole economy leading to ‘ the high mass consumption, high productivity and high levels of urbanization. This feature includes prenewtonianscience and technology.

All this typically takes 20 years and rostow attempts to date actual take off of those countries, which have experienced them. (1783-1803) For Britain which was the first followed amongst others, USA (1890-1940), Japan (1878-1900), Russia (1890-1914) and India, china (1950 onwards). Modernization: Modernization was prompted by the decline of the old colonial empires. The third world became a focused of attention by politicians who were keen to show countries pushing for independence that sustain development was possible under the western wings or modernization theory.

Trumans speech embodies this initial optimism. Modernization can be described as optimistic because it presents development as a easy process enduring under development is explained in terms of obstacles. Paolo Friers suggests people need to develop political consciousness and the rout to this is though pedagogic techniques of empowerment. Learner(1964) explains the from traditional to modern. Be beliefs that ‘ Transitional society’ a society which has the process of cultural diffusion from more advanced sector of the world; been exposed to modernity.

For learner the traditional society a society that has defined by what it wants to become, it is empathetic society. Lear said that ‘ traditional society’ is not participant; it deploys people by kinship into communities isolated from each other and from a center the bands of interdependence people horizons are limited by local (1964, p-50). In the 1940s and 1950s was the only realistic way for LDC to industrialize. In general then for learner the mare a society exhibits empathy the more it will be engaged in the process of modernization and more likely is be modern.

There is a clear mixture of sociological, psychological and economic feature to modernization theory, including for example, reference to value systems, individualmotivationand capital accumulation. The critique of modernization theory: There are cultural and intellectual rejections of modernity. The boundaries between low and highcultureare broken down. Intellectually post modernism involves and of the dominance of the unitary theories of progress and belief in scientific rationality.

Modernization theory has not survived intact as viable paradigms for understanding change and transformation or process ofpovertyinequality. The theory cannot realistically explain the problem of global inequity and poverty. The principal term of the theory the traditional and the modern are much too vague to be of much use on classification of distinct skeptics. The two terms do not give the way indication of the great variety of society there have and do exist. Although the theory is supposed to be the way of society develops.

There is little explanation offered for this problem. This is a serious weakness. Industrialized modern and its attendant’s urbanization weaker the wider kinship system as the people become primarily concern with thenuclear family(will’s 1977). Modernization completely undermines the values of extendedfamilyties (penn-1986). It also derived from salvation among Protestants on important contributory factor in the rise of rational capitalism. The most forceful criticism of modernization theory is that it entirely ignores the impact ofimperialismon third world countries.

This is a staggering omission. Conclusion: Modernization deals with social change from agrarian societies to industrial ones, it is important to look at the technological viewpoint. New technologies do not change societies by it. Most accounts give greatest priority to the role played by the values, norms and beliefs of people in determining the sort of society – traditional or modern- that they create and thus value changes are the most important conditions for social change.

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