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Leadership Human resource management is a multivariate concept that has many directional approaches. Two main theoretical approaches do exist, scientific management and human relations movement. Scientific management seeks to understand the potentiality of each individual in expending assigned duties. Therefore, work processes should be structured such that all human resource potential is optimized and work output maximized. On the other hand, human relations movement advocates for the study of human resource as a group concerning motivation, socialization, and gratification in the endeavor of improving work productivity.
Managers study motivation behavior in order to optimize human resource towards achieving organizations’ set objectives. Different workers respond differently to motivation. This makes management a complex endeavor since different workers will follow different motivational patterns or fall under different motivational theories. This necessitates managers to study motivational behavior (Gupta n. d).
Douglas McGregor developed two theories of human motivation. According to theory X, it is assumed that workers will naturally stay in idle state unless prompted to work under coercion or other forms of motivation. This calls for a lot of supervision under a hierarchical form human resource management. This theory has been criticized for lack of economies of scale especially in large organizations where much of the work force would be deployed towards managing other employees. Theory Y is a reverse of theory X. According to this theory, employees are inherently self-driven and motivated to work such that work is a natural activity. However, the theory posits that capacity is usually underutilized and therefore, it is the work of the management to use different motivational approaches to optimize the human resource. Creating a favorable work environment that would meet each worker’s expectations for motivation is the greatest challenge facing this theory.
Gupta. (n. d). Principles of Management. India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

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