Essay, 14 pages (3500 words)

Introduction to edge essay

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution. EDGE is most talked about technology in mobile communication technologies in recent times and it turn out to be the evolution of most widely used GSM technology. EDGE technology facilitates better data transmission rates with improved spectrum efficiency and the best part of EDGE is capability of supporting new applications and improved mobile communication capabilities. EDGE can also be known as extended version of GPRS therefore it is also called EGPRS.


EDGE is way to achieve better data rates on GSM networks. EGDE is add on to GPRS network and can not work stand alone. It works with new modulation techniques and new channel coding that is used for both Packet switch and circuit switch voice and data networks. Higher throughput and data rates can be achieved by adding new modulation and coding channels to already installed GPRS system EDGE Technology EDGE is enhanced technology for 2G, 2.

5 generation systems, GSM and GPRS networks. It makes deployment of EDGE technology that much easier for mobile companies.

It does not require any up gradation in hardware, software or any changes in GSM network. EDGE supported transceiver are required to be installed, base station system are also required to be upgrade to support EDGE. But this is only required when mobile carriers are operating on older GSM version hardware, which is not the case with most of the operators around the world, there for EDGE can be enabled by activation of optional feature of GSM software. About 90% of mobile operator companies support EDGE through out the world.

EDGE and GRPS technologies have similarities in it, these two technologies have same symbol rate, although modulation bit rates are different. EDGE technology can deliver three times faster bit rate ratio comparing to GPRS in given time, this is how EDGE transmit at better rate. GPRS can transfer data at rates of 115 kbps theoretically and up to 160 kbps on physical layer, where as EDGE/EGRPS can transfer up to 384 kbps on physical layer and 473. 6 kbps theoretically. Latest modulation and error tolerant transmission methodologies with help of mechanism of improved link adaption have made rates of EGPRS/EDGE possible.

Dual antennas are used to improve signal quality and bit rate spectrum efficiency.

EDGE Evolution will take some time to be deployed as software upgrades, it will work with already installed base stations, and any hardware updates will not be required. EDGE Evolution will provide mobile users mobile internet connections as good as DSL and speed up to 500Kbits. Evolution of GSM to 3G/IMT-2000 via GPRS/ EDGE/ WCDMA Articles : Mobile : 3G, posted 20-FEB-2004 17: 46, by Global mobile Suppliers Association

Realising and implementing 3G can be achieved effectively through a series of incremental steps, building on the global track record of GSM – the world’s most successful digital cellular technology. With the evolution from GSM through GPRS and EDGE to WCDMA, a new mobile environment is being created.

By growing capacity and capabilities seamlessly from 2G to 3G, new services are being introduced and experienced that will emphasise lifestyle rather than technology. GPRS: the vital first step to WCDMA The first step involves enhancing existing GSM networks with GPRS, introducing packet data services for “ always on” mobility.

This is a fast and cost-effective strategy, supporting the first wave of Mobile Internet services. Users benefit from fast connection set-up – sending and, receiving messages in an instant, using email on the move, and always-on access to a host of applications and data sources. GSA has published a Special Focus Report “ Current State and Outlook of GPRS in Europe”. The report, which was conducted by Satama Interactive on behalf of GSA, provides a view of the current status and future outlook for GPRS in Europe.

Its findings follow research undertaken during the period June – October 2002.

Click here to download the full report. EDGE EDGE provides the next step beyond GPRS, offering data rates for 3G services within GSM operators’ existing spectrum allocations. EDGE is recognised by the ITU as a 3G radio access standard. In technical terms, EDGE incorporates improvements to the GSM radio interface with a new modulation scheme delivering higher data rates, higher spectral efficiency, improved transmission perfor-mance and improved coverage.

These improvements exploit the full benefits of GPRS developments in the core network.

Although deployment requires the addition of new transceivers and, in some cases, base stations, this can be programmed into GSM operators’ ongoing network expansion activity to minimise deployment cost. Future EDGE enhancements include improved voice capacity, coverage and speech quality features. EDGE in Summary ? EDGE triples GPRS capacity while increasing overall packet data performance ? EDGE is a simple low cost add-on to existing GSM networks ? EDGE does not require new cell planning or frequency planning ? EDGE provides a necessary first step for a common GSM/WCDMA network ?

EDGE is the easiest path from GSM/GPRS to 3G high-speed data services, whether alone, or in combination with WCDMA.

Click here for further details on EDGE, including White Papers, GSA Opinion Papers, Media Reports and details of the EDGE Operators’ Forum – including details of the next meeting. WCDMA: realising the full 3G potential WCDMA, a wideband radio technique, represents the next step in the technology chain, delivering the full potential of 3G through its high data rate capabilities. WCDMA can typically handle simultaneous access to a variety of voice, data and video services.

With typical user data rates initially at 64-384 kbit/s, WCDMA is more than capable of delivering what people want at the speeds they need.

Also fully compliant with IMT-2000, WCDMA is the air interface technology for standards in the 2GHz bandwidth. It is the final piece in the technology jigsaw, with regard to bridging the transition to full 3G services. Whereas GPRS and EDGE are essentially enhancing existing spectrum, WCDMA provides the progression into new spectrum. Based on the GSM core network infrastructure, WCDMA enables GSM operators to integrate the technology into their existing networks.

The WCDMA radio interface uses a signaling protocol structure that is comparable to GSM and TDMA, enabling the partial re-use of the core switching layer of these existing networks, and speeding up the rollout of new services. The user will be unaware that the network they are using operates a mix of technologies, operating seamlessly alongside one another and comprising GSM, GPRS, EDGE and WCDMA components.

Once the initial deployment of 3G is completed, there will be a sustained evolution over at least a decade.

The industry has a clear path forwards to WCDMA, building on the proven success of GSM. WCDMA is firmly on track as the defining technology for mobile communications, building from GSM through GPRS and EDGE to WCDMA. GPRS and EDGE are important avenues towards realising 3G and there is a clear evolutionary path to support growing market take-up, building the market gradually through service excellence and evolving applications. The evolutionary path from GSM through to WCDMA offers the optimum balance between the technology and the business cases. EDGE Wireless Internet Access

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), is a digital mobile phone technology that allows to increase data transmission rate and improve data transmission reliability.

It is generally classified as a 2. 75G network technology. EDGE has been introduced into GSM networks around the world since 2003, initially in North America. It can be used for any packet switched application such as an Internet connection. High-speed data applications such as video services and other multimedia benefit from EGPRS’ increased data capacity.

EDGE Circuit Switched is a possible future development. EDGE Evolution continues in Release 7 of the 3GPP standard providing doubled performance e. g. to complement High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA). EDGE Wireless Technology EDGE/EGPRS is implemented as a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and 2.

5G GSM and GPRS networks, making it easier for existing GSM carriers to upgrade to it. EDGE/EGPRS is a superset to GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it, provided the carrier implements the necessary upgrade.

Although EDGE requires no hardware or software changes to be made in GSM core networks, base stations must be modified. EDGE compatible transceiver units must be installed and the base station subsystem (BSS) needs to be upgraded to support EDGE.

New mobile terminal hardware and software is also required to decode/encode the new modulation and coding schemes and carry the higher user data rates to implement new services. EDGE Wireless Transmission techniques In addition to Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK), EDGE uses 8 phase shift keying (8PSK) for the upper five of its nine modulation and coding schemes.

EDGE produces a 3-bit word for every change in carrier phase. This effectively triples the gross data rate offered by GSM. EDGE, like GPRS, uses a rate adaptation algorithm that adapts the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) according to the quality of the radio channel, and thus the bit rate and robustness of data transmission.

It introduces a new technology not found in GPRS, Incremental Redundancy, which, instead of retransmitting disturbed packets, sends more redundancy information to be combined in the receiver.

This increases the probability of correct decoding. EDGE can carry data speeds up to 236. 8 kbit/s for 4 timeslots (theoretical maximum is 473. 6 kbit/s for 8 timeslots) in packet mode and will therefore meet the International Telecommunications Union’s requirement for a 3G network, and has been accepted by the ITU as part of the IMT-2000 family of 3G standards.

It also enhances the circuit data mode called HSCSD, increasing the data rate of this service. EDGE Wireless Classification Whether EDGE is 2G or 3G depends on implementation.

While Class 3 and below EDGE devices clearly are not 3G, class 4 and above devices perform at a higher bandwidth than other technologies conventionally considered as 3G (such as 1xRTT). Because of the variability, EDGE is generally classified as 2. 75G network technology. EDGE Evolution EDGE Evolution improves on EDGE in a number of ways.

Latencies are reduced by lowering the Transmission Time Interval by half (from 20 ms to 10 ms). Bit rates are increased using dual carriers, higher symbol rate and higher-order modulation (32QAM and 16QAM instead of 8-PSK), and “ Turbo Codes” to improve error correction.

And finally signal quality is improved using dual antennas. An EDGE Evolution terminal or network can support only some of these improvements, or roll them out in stages White Paper: Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution – EDGE Posted: 00: 00 08 Mar 2000 Topics: Mobile & Wireless Networking | | Nokia’s vision for a service platform supporting high-speed data applications EDGE The business of wireless data is expected to grow in the region of 100-200 per cent per annum and the mobile communications industry agrees that wireless data services will form the foundation for future business.

The enormous success of short messaging in many countries proves that people accept the benefits of non-voice services.

We are now facing the introduction of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) as well as the higher transmission speeds of High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD), soon to be joined by the convenience of “ always on-line” direct internet connections with General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). These standards will enable greater sophistication as end-user services move towards personal multimedia.

A new technology, Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) will be introduced to boost network capacity and data rates of both circuit switching (HSCSD) and packet switching (GPRS), to meet the demands of wireless multimedia applications and mass market deployment. ADVERTISEMENT Many wireless data applications today can be implemented with 9. 6kbit/s data. However, bandwidth-hungry fixed line data applications – web browsing, access to corporate data bases, and so on – would benefit from higher transmission speeds when used over the mobile network.

HSCSD will significantly improve performance, especially for time-critical applications. GPRS will enable cost-effective wireless access to applications that rely upon data bursts, adding packet switching to GSM with a packet-based air interface on top of the current circuit switched mode of operation. GPRS will provide the connectivity needed in packet-switched data networks such as the Internet. EDGE, a new radio interface technology with enhanced modulation, increases the HSCSD and GPRS data rates by up to three fold.

EDGE modulation will increase the data throughput provided by the packet switched service even over 400kbit/s per carrier.

Similarly, the data rates of circuit switched data can be increased, or existing data rates can be achieved using fewer timeslots, saving capacity. Accordingly, these higher speed data services are referred to as EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS) and ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data). EDGE, expected to be deployed in 2000-2001, is a major improvement in GSM phase 2+. As a modification to existing GSM networks, EDGE does not require new network elements.

EDGE is especially attractive to GSM 900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 operators that do not have a licence for UMTS, but still wish to offer competitive personal multimedia applications utilising the existing band allocation. Also, EDGE can co-exist with UMTS, for instance to provide high-speed services for wide-area coverage while UMTS is deployed in urban hot spots. In the US, EDGE is part of the IS-136 high-speed concept which is one of the third generation RTT (Radio Transmission Technology) proposals from TR45.

EDGE will be also standardised in the US which makes it possible to achieve a global mobile radio system with many services characteristic to third generation systems. Nokia is dedicated to supporting GSM operators with wireless data solutions that help them create value in the market place, both now and in the future.

Wireless data is steady evolution, not revolution. With Nokia’s experience, the operator starting today with wireless data can accumulate the skills and know-how to build a strong market position, all the way to third generation systems and the personal multimedia era.

This White Paper describes Nokia’s understanding of the role and benefits of EDGE as wireless data evolves towards personal multimedia. EDGE The GSM standard is being developed to support mobile services with radio interface data rates even over 400kbit/s.

This work is being performed under the ETSI work item EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution). The major change in the GSM standard to support higher data rates is the new modulation system, known as 8PSK (Phase Shift Keying). This will not replace but rather co-exist with the existing GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) modulation.

With 8PSK, it is possible to provide higher data rates with a somewhat reduced coverage, whereas GMSK will be used as a robust mode for a wide area coverage. EDGE brings more speed and capacity when needed In mature GSM markets, cellular data penetration is forecast to increase exponentially during the early 2000s. New wireless data applications and innovative terminal types will generate completely new markets: aggressive GSM operators can expect to obtain up to 30 per cent of their airtime and revenue from wireless data by year 2000.

HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) and GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), introduced to GSM in 1998 and 1999 respectively, will enable cellular operators to offer higher than 9. 6kbit/s data rates to their subscribers for new data applications. Cellular operators that have invested in HSCSD and GPRS expect to be able to offer higher data rates without building too many new sites. The ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data) and EGPRS (Enhanced General Packet Radio System) solutions offer data services comparable to 3rd generation levels with considerably fewer radio resources than in standard GSM.

This means that EDGE TRXs (transceivers) carry more data per time slot, decreasing the need for new TRXs/frequencies. In addition, end user response times decrease, ensuring good service levels as data usage increases.

It could be possible for EDGE Phase 2 to provide a voice service using AMR (Adaptive Multirate Codec) type of solution. EDGE TRXs would then be capable of carrying multiple speech calls per time slot, increasing voice capacity. Also, high quality codecs, e. g 32kbit/s would be feasible. EDGE as a voice solution looks especially interesting for indoor systems because of its scalable capacity.

EDGE boosts data rates The Phase 1 EDGE standard, scheduled to be complete in the third quarter of 1999, will contain both EGPRS and ECSD services. EGPRS will be based on the footprint of GPRS, whereas ECSD will enhance the data rates of HSCSD. It is expected that packet data will dominate circuit switched data in future GSM data networks, calling for EGPRS solutions with high flexibility and spectral efficiency. Also, the high data rate real time services provided with ECSD are seen as important for applications such as video retrieval and video telephony.

EDGE will provide significantly higher data rates on the current 200kHz GSM carrier. The data rates being specified by ETSI would bring ECSD rates up to 38.

4kbit/s/timeslot and EGPRS rates up to 60kbit/s/ timeslot. The data throughput per carrier increases even over 400kbit/s. For ECSD, it is possible to support a 64kbit/s real time service with a low bit error ratio (BER) by allocating two time slots of 32 kbit/s each. The enhanced modulation will adapt to radio circumstances and hence offer the highest data rates in good propagation conditions, whilst ensuring wider area coverage at lower data speeds per timeslot.

EDGE complements UMTS EDGE will allow operators without a UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone System) licence stay competitive in wireless data markets.

However, UMTS operators can also use EDGE for gradual rollout of high-speed data services and for wide area coverage where UMTS would be used for urban areas. EDGE builds on existing GSM network Due to the new air interface modulation and the greatly increased data rates, some software and hardware changes will be required to make a network EDGE capable and new mobile terminals are required for enhanced services.

However, EDGE will not require any new network elements and will be able to support older mobile terminals with GMSK modulation. EDGE data applications With EDGE, GSM goes personal multimedia. EDGE will boost all existing circuit and packet-switched services and enable completely new high-speed data applications. Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS) The dominant data networking protocol, on which most data network applications are running, is TCP/IP, the Internet Protocol.

All web applications are run on some form of TCP/IP, which is by nature a protocol family for packet switched networks.

This means that (E)GPRS is an ideal bearer for any packet switched application such as an Internet connection. From the end user’s point of view, the (E)GPRS network is an Internet sub-network that has wireless access. Internet addressing is used and Internet services can be accessed.

A new number, the IP address number, is introduced with the telephone number. From the Internet’s point of view, the (E)GPRS network is just one sub-network among many others. Typical EGPRS applications are: Online Email Web Enhanced short messages Wireless imaging with instant pictures Video services

Document and information sharing Surveillance Voice over Internet Broadcasting Enhanced Circuit Switched Data (ECSD) Some applications, such as fax and video, require a transparent service (constant bit rates), while other applications (the web, e-mail) can work well with non-transparent services. Typical ECSD applications are: E-mail download and upload Bandwidth-secure mobile high speed LAN access File transfer Vertical applications such as batch-type field sales information or document transfer Real-time applications demanding a constant bit rate and transmission delay Time-critical wireless imaging

Mobile videophony Video on demand Live video streaming Market potential Gradually, non-voice services will account for one third or more of GSM traffic and revenues. This will not happen overnight, however, as wireless data is an evolution, not a revolution. Thus a step-by-step approach to educating the market and introducing more sophisticated services is vital.

EDGE provides a boost to data speeds using the existing GSM network, allowing the operator to offer personal multimedia applications before the introduction of UMTS.

The time between EDGE and UMTS introduction clearly improves the business case for UMTS and may prove to be instrumental in gaining a long-term advantage over competitors. As wireless data becomes available to all subscribers and they demand a full set of high-speed services and shorter response times, EDGE will provide an operator with a competitive advantage. EDGE also enables data capacity to be deployed when and where demand dictates, minimising the investment required. Added benefits with EDGE For the operator Migration to wireless multimedia services

The operator can increase data revenues by offering attractive new types applications to end users.

Improved customer satisfaction Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will decrease response times for all data services, thus keeping end users satisfied and connected. Possibility of early market deployment of third generation type applications EDGE networks are expected to emerge in year 2001, when mature markets are likely to start demanding multimedia applications. Quick network implementation EDGE will not require new network elements and EDGE capability can be introduced gradually to the network.

Optimised network investment as GSM enhancement Flexible data capacity deployment where the demand is.

For the end user Improved quality of service Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will decrease response times for all data services, thus keeping end users satisfied and connected. Personal multimedia services Attractive new types of applications and terminals will become available. Potentially lower price per bit Lower cost of data capacity for high-speed data applications gives the operator flexibility in pricing. Conclusions

EDGE will provide the solution for operators wanting to offer personal multimedia services early and who need to increase the data capacity in their GSM network prior to UMTS deployment. EDGE is especially valuable for operators that do not deploy UMTS. EDGE will not replace existing investments or services but will upgrade them to a highly competitive level through gradual investment.

EDGE rollout can satisfy increased data demand and produce increased revenues by first launching EDGE service in urban and office environments for business users and then providing wider area coverage as private usage takes off

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