- Published: November 15, 2022
- Updated: November 15, 2022
- Level: Masters Degree
- Language: English
- Downloads: 19
Running Head: ESL Starter English English as a Second Language Starter English Instructional Problem This course uses the participants’ previous education and language knowledge of English. It introduces them to basic literacy skills and helps them adjust to their new cultural environment. Participants will develop the ability to use oral and written English for daily needs, develop basic conversation skills and vocabulary, and use simple sentence patterns. The course consists of activities for oral and visual communication, reading and writing. Oral and visual communication activities are aimed at developing fluency and accuracy in oral communication, using English in socially appropriate ways and developing appreciation for information from media sources. Reading activities are aimed at increasing reading comprehension, developing vocabulary and research skills. Writing activities are aimed at developing accuracy in written information through simple compositions and accomplishing forms. The course consists of 12 modules.
According to Chamut (1995), cognitive language learning fosters school achievement of students who are learning through the medium of a second language. Non-native English speakers face problems in learning academic subjects which use English as the medium of instruction. Due to the widespread use of English worldwide, language courses in English have become part of the academic curriculum in most countries. However, the English course in these situations take on the nature of a foreign language course and fails to really develop language proficiency skills in terms of comprehension, vocabulary and research skills due to limited usage of the language in everyday life. The instructional problem that arises therefore, is how to build on the existing language knowledge of English and implement a training strategy that hones English literacy skills allowing the participants to develop the ability to use oral and written English for daily needs, develop basic conversation skills and vocabulary, and use simple sentence patterns.
The training is based on cognitive learning theory in which learners are mentally active participants in the teaching-learning process. Mental activity in the learners occur when they apply prior knowledge to new problems and search for meaning in new information. The instructional problem relates to a cognitive domain performance issues that can be solved by training. The goal of instructional programs is to build knowledge and skills that can be re-used for later learning or in various life situations, such as career. ESL training to help improve academic performance specifically addresses the problem of cognitive domain performance, maximizing the student’s cognitive processes that will result in learning and minimizing those that disrupt learning (Clark & Harrelson 2002).
Training in English as a second language is suitable for computer and web-based training because the learner can think, respond and give feedback on the subject, a stimulating environment can be presented where the learner can learn at his own pace, the learner can take the course at his convenience without any expense of time or travel, it can be made accessible to a wide audience, it can be conveniently used by the physically challenged, and content can be easily updated (seo 2007).
The tutorial method of teaching present situations and questions, suggest ideas that coincide with the topic being studied, and force students to come up with their own solutions. The instructor’s in the tutorial atmosphere is to pose constructive questions that will lead the students in the right direction. Such a scenario can easily be implemented in ESL W/CBT because the computer or instruction software can untiringly assume the role of the tutorial instructor. In face-to-face teacher-student interactions, the tutorial method may pose problems because it is time consuming and may require multiple instructors for different levels of learners (Angiono 2008). In this instance W/CBT is advantageous for implementing tutorial strategies which can implement a drill and practical model. The concept introduced can be viewed by the learner an indefinite number of times until it is imbibed. There can be endless examples of concept application to increase understanding as well as innumerable applications through drills and exercises which can be repeated until they are mastered.
A performance gap is the behavioral area not performed to standards when measuring task performance (Clark 2008). A pre-test or a performance analysis of the learner is the simplest way of checking for the existence, nature, and scope of the performance gap. The results of the PNA are inputs to the training design process. The performance gap is what the training will address and is the basis for determining the goals of the training course or what the learner will be able to do after training. The training goals must be linked with the performance gap (Reproline 2008). An example for the ESL W/CBT are reading expectations such as reading and responding to short passages texts designed or adapted to the learner’s level of English proficiency, using reading strategies to acquire key English vocabulary from simple texts and for decoding and comprehension, and finding specific information in reference materials. Such expectations are set because performance gap analysis had shown that gaps indeed occur in these areas.
Angiono, M. 2008. The Tutorial Supplement Method of Teaching Introductory Physics. Retrieved 1 August 2008 from http://www. colorado. edu/physics/phys4810/phys4810_fa04/final_projects/angiono. pdf
Chamut, A. U. 1995. Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach: CALLA in Arlington, Virginia. Retrieved 1 August 2008 from http://www. gwu. edu/~calla/website/references. html
Clark, D. 2008. Performance Gaps and Measurement. Retrieved 1 August 2008 from http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/hrd/gap. html
Clark, R., Harrelson, G. L. 2002. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes. Retrieved 1 August 2008 from http://www. pubmedcentral. nih. gov/articlerender. fcgi? artid= 164417
Reproline. 2008. Training Works! Retrieved 1 August 2008 from http://www. reproline. jhu. edu/english/6read/6training/Tngworks/designing. htm
Seo. 2007. Computer-Based Training and Web-Based Training. ArticlesBase website. Retrieved 1 August 2008 from Article posted to http://www. articlesbase. com/information-technology-articles/computer-based-training-web-based-training-225358. html
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