In the field of education, the terms instructional leadership and transformational leadership have emerged as two of the most frequently studied models of school leadership and become more popular (Heck and Hallinger, 1999).
What distinguishes these models from others is the focus on how administrators and teachers improve teaching and learning. Transformational leaders focus on restructuring the institution by improving institutional conditions and making them more effective. Leithwood, Begley and Cousins (1994) define transformational leadership as follows: The term ‘ transform’ implies major changes in the form, nature, function and/or potential of some phenomenon. When applied to leadership, it specifies general ends to be pursued although it is largely mute with respect to means.
From this beginning, we consider the central purpose of transformational leadership to be the enhancement of the individual and collective problem-solving capacities of organizational members; such capacities are exercised in the identification of goals to be achieved and practices to be used in their achievement (p. 7). It is also defined as a leadership style that creates valuable and positive change in the followers. A transformational leader focuses on “ transforming” others to help each other, to look out for each other, to be encouraging and harmonious, and to look out for the organization as a whole. In this leadership, the leader enhances the motivation, morale and performance of his follower group.
According to Burns, the transformational style creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values, changes expectations and aspirations of employees. Unlike in the transactional style, it is not based on a “ give and take” relationship, but on the leader’s personality, traits and ability to make a change through vision and goals.
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