Essay, 5 pages (1100 words)


There are many preventablediseases in our country.

Hypertension remains the top disease affectingmany people across the United States. The reason our healthcare systemis so focused on this condition is because of the conditions which arevery treatable as well as preventable. Hypertension remains the predominantillness in our medical system. The reason why our doctors provideso much focus on hypertension is because the main modes of therapy arevery simple: diet and exercise. However, the US population does not focusor abide with diet and exercise and physicians are forced to rely on medicalmanagement. Since the majority of the US population is suffering fromhypertension, it is important that all individual have an understandingon this matter.

By truly understanding hypertension, we peoplecan have a better knowledge of how to prevent the condition as well asits many serious complications. Hypertension occurs when the blood pressureis elevated this is a severe medical condition. This condition is toof have nearly afflicted over a billion people internationally and isa majorfactor to mortality and morbidity. This disease is often termed as the??? silent killer???. The disease is usually unnoticed until the damaging effectssuch as stroke, renal function and blindness have come upon the patients. Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure.

Hypertension isdefined on the basis of levels above generally accepted normal??™s the normalpressure of an adult would be 120/80. Blood pressure is calculated inmillimeters of mercury. The number on top is the pressure that is made whenyour heart beats which is referred to as the systolic number.

The systolicnumber may be above normal when it is above the 140 level. The numberon the bottom is the pressure inside blood vessels when the heartis atease which is also known as the diastolic number. The diastolic number isabove normal when it reaches over 90. When you??™re systolic reading is between125 -138 and your diastolic reading is 80-89 you are said to be havingpre-hypertension.

Those admitted with pre-hypertension have a much higherchance of getting high blood pressure. Over 15% of the general populationsin the USA are regarded as being hypertensive. Over 20 million individualsin Africa and 600 million individuals around the world have beenreported to be hypersensitive In North America over 90 million people abovethe age of 21 are suffering from hypertension. One out of four adults aresuffering from hypertension and over 75% is fully aware that they are hypertensive. According to statistical data collected in 2008 over 65% of patients??™ hypertensive are receiving treatments. A majority of the populationdo not have their hypertension under control. The major causeof hypertensionis still not known to us but it can be easily identified and controlled. A recently conducted 10 year study shows that the rate of death increasedover 25% and the reported number of deaths to 55%.

Non Hispanic whitesare less likely to suffer from high blood pressure than non Hispanic blacks. The highest rate of hypertension within the African Americans would bethose suffering from diabetes, less educated, overweight and physically inactive. In the past 5 years the death rate per every 100, 000 people were 15. 8 white males, 52. 1 black males, 15. 1 white females and 40. 3 black females, from this information it is evident that more and more individuals aredying from hypertension regardless of race and gender.

Nearly 550, 000 nursinghome residents are suffering from hypertension and a quarter of thosenumber are also health care patients suffering. Already over 20 millionindividuals in Africa and 600 million individuals around the world havebeen reported to be hypertensive. Hypertension is generally categorizedinto two forms the primary or essential hypertension and the secondaryhypertension.

The primary hypertension accounts for nearly 90% of allhypertension cases and unfortunately the specific underlying cause is stillunknown. It is learnt that nearly 70%of them have a positive family history. The sedentary lifestyle, obesity and body mass index is assumedto bea factor of the hypertension. Insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome isalso believed to be a cause of hypertension. Secondary hypertension isa typeof hypertension that is the consequences of an abnormality or a specificdisease. There are several causes of this hypertension such as coarctationof aorta, renal causes, endocrine causes, alcohol and drugs, narrowingnature of the aorta between the lower and upper body branches.

It isusually situated in a position just after the arch of the aorta valve. The place in which the coarctation happens is in most cases where the alsoassociated with coarctation of the aorta we are able to identify the coarctationof the aorta by radio-femoral delay, upper limb hypertension andby hearing a systolic murmur over the spine. Renal causes are affected byplaque deposits that collect in the artery and micro fiber dysplasia. The arteries supplying blood to the kidneys are narrow or have become blocked. Drinking is a major cause for increased high blood pressure. But therelationship between the mortality deaths and hypertension with regard toDrinking and substance abuse is still unclear and several studies have beencarried out to determine its relationship.

The majority of individual sufferingsfrom hypertension are not even aware that they suffer from such adisease this is due to the general lack of symptoms and is usually only noticedin the severe stages. Through regular medical care and checking of thevital signs one is able to monitor and understand a persons hypertensionand thus able to give proper treatment. It is also important thatwe identify any underlying cause with regard to hypertension as these problemsmay increase with time. The recognition of certain risk factors arealso related to the development of complications.

Finally we are to detectany complications that are already present within the patient. A majorityof the hypertension are detected on the routine examination. The `major cause of acute hypertension is transient headache and polyuria.` Long `standing hypertension would lead to left ventricular hyperthropy and` very `short early diastolic murmors Panic attacks, paraoxysmal headache and` `papatations suggest chronic pyelonephrtis. Recurrent back pains,` undiagnosedfever and recurrent urinary infection are also signs of increasedhypertension.

The initial diagnosis of the patient would include thephysical examination and complete medical history to determine the patientis suffering from hypertension. We are able to diagnose a patient withregard to hypertension in two methods which are the basic and secondarymethods. The basic study involves those methods which we are able toattain from tests. The first is a urine analysis of the patient which wouldlook into the levels of protein, blood and glucose.

Also the blood urealevel and cretin is to be closely monitored to assess any renal `failurewhich can cause hypertension. The fasting and postprandial` blood glucoselevels are to be checked for hyperglycemia. Electrocardiogram and chestradiographs are also carried out on the patients to know the cardiac size, any evidence of cardiac failure and aortic dilation. The secondary studiesmonitor the levels of the tests which are being carried out and `include the phaeochromocytoma plasma which should consist of plasma` catecholinelevels and 24 hour urinary VMA and their metabolites. Polysisticrenal disease diagnosis is also carried out through radiographof the skull also help to diagnose the problems related to that ofhypertension The treatment of hypertension is carried out by three methodswhich are general, antihypertensive drugs and treatment of the underlyingcause. The general measures of hypertension would include controllingones obesity this is possible by watching the calorie intake andfood consumption, maintaining low levels of sodium in one body usually consistingof

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