- Published: February 5, 2022
- Updated: February 5, 2022
- Language: English
- Downloads: 36
AbstractIn the environment created by events leading up to the federal governments summits, it has been notice that there is a need to study the economic impact of the management in the industrial field. And what the questions could be answered by the implementation of the management as a principle matter in the environment that this case study talks about. Introduction and literature reviewThis study examine the planned approaches to safety management system of 20 selected workplaces, there formal and informal systems, their organization arrangement, and the border workplace culture and management systems which explain the nature, operation and performance of their health and safety management strategies. The intensive focus on selected cases is used as mechanisms to facilitate the unraveling of the complex processes at work and further our knowledge of these processes. The aim is to explain the types of health and safety management. What types of systems could be distinguished? What is the property of these types? How health and safety management in each case is integrated into border workplace management system will be examined and the benefits of an integrated approach will be explained. The study also talking about healthy and safety best practice. The discipline of health on safety has a history of adopting and adapting prevailing management theories and techniques. Best practice can be defined as ” comprehensive and integrated approach to continuous improvement in the all aspect of organization operation” (Australian manufacturing council, 2004). Also, work safe Australia (200: 5) described the healthy and safety best practice is one elements of integration into all the process of continuous improvement and critical success factors. These factors are: (1) leadership from senior manager’s (2) employees participation (3) designing better workplace (4) continuous education and communication (5) continuous improvement in health and safety. Health and safety best practice can enhanced in work safe publication as a handled for workplace changing culture, reflecting extensive cooperation between managers and workers as best practice principle. Also, this study aims to define health and safety best practice. At state level, health and safety management systems have been developed and supported by introduction or extension of Ruben’s style, such as Victorian occupational health and safety act 1985. In many ways the legislations may be described as laying groundwork for systematic approach for healthy and safety management, since it: Seeking more focus on responsibility for action on safety and health in workplace. Provide a standard for appraising the performance, and provide a framework for actions. Giving a strong emphasis to health and safety consultative arrangement. All the three of these characteristics are consistent with planned approach to safety and health management. While the legislation in Victoria does not go so far as too prescribe a planned approach to safety and health management, an effective health and safety management system are consistent with objective of legislation. Safety and health legislation in Victoria is designed to stimulate and support enterprise level activity on safety and health. The legislation can not insure effective enterprise level activity. Health and safety consultative arrangement may further stimulate planned enterprise level activity, in response either to creative commitment on the part of employers to include employees in health and safety management system, or it may be as a strategy for controlling the employee representativeness. The objectivesThe study provides a guideline and issues to be taken in consideration when planning, implementing and maintaining an effective SMS (safety management system) at major hazard facility (MHF). Preventing main accidents at an MHF and reduces the effect of major accidents if one happened. The regulations place a certain duty on employer in controlling of an MHF to have an effective safety management system in place, therefore the quality of health safety management system at an MHF place an essential part in the license of compliance regarding decision making processes. The employees have to be commitment in using the booklet regarding SMS, to ensure that it meets the regulations requirement. Employees should MHF should refers to regulations for specific requirement. Case study researchThe case study was selected related to appropriate methodology for examining issues related of the types and effectiveness of health and safety management systems. As Yin (2007: 17) summarize types of questions that are suites to case study research: how, why, and what. Theses questions provide explanation rather than describing and prediction and the studying events in particular time rather than frequency or incidence of events. The heart questions for this study will be mentioned: How have enterprises respond to the need to manage occupational health and safety? What types of health and safety management system have been introduced? Why and how these types of system have been introduced and what is their relative performance? Why enterprises with a planned approach to safety and health management have different levels of performance? Enterprise data and workforce characteristicsEnterprise structure and ownershipProduct and marked dataWorkforce size and compositionUnion membershipHazards in workplaceInjury, disease, and incident statisticsHealth and safety managementHistory of health and safety managementPlanning, policies and proceduresOrganization responsibilityEmployees involvementContractor health and safety systemHazards determination and the risk assessmentRisk control, data gathering and use and employees training . Border work place managementManagement type and structureStrategic and business planningWork organizationWorkplace reform and enterprise bargainingPeople and quality managementBenchmarkingClaims management and reformation managementThroughout the protocol, indicators of the integration of health and safety in to broader workplace management systems were highlighted, with particular reference to: Corporate goals and the evaluation of these goalsThe activities of senior managers about health and safetyRole of managers/ supervisors in relation to health and safetyManagement accountabilityConsultative arrangementsPolicies, procedures, and work instructionsThe case study data were collected in different ways, mainly through interviews with a workplace players, including senior managers, line managers and supervisors, health and safety representatives, health and safety committee members, health and safety specialists, and sometimes employees. Documentation was tested or collected on all aspects of health and safety management, both as a source of information’s and to validate the interview data. In most of the cases, workplace inspections assisted the verification process and sometimes giving an opportunity to speak to shop floor employees. In a number of workplaces, further information on how health and safety management works in practice was obtained from observing health and safety committees in action. At the last point, the final case study report was returned to a nominated management and a nominated employee representative for verification of the factual content and for any further comment. Health, Safety and Quality ManagementTotal Quality Management (TQM) has been defined as customer focused, strategic and systematic approach to continuous performance improvement (Vincoli, 2001: 28). It is an all-embracing management philosophy concerned with changing the corporate culture, the balance between health and safety and quality management have been featured strongly in the health and safety literature in recent years. The literature focused on the collaboration between the two aspects (for example Watkins, 2003: 32) and on the direct application of the quality principles and/or techniques to the field of health and safety (Fisher, 2001, Smith, 2003, Clapp and Phillips, 1988, Salazar, 2009; Vincoli, 2001, Motzko, 2009). Drawing on the works of the major quality management theorists, they point to the need for convergence between quality and health and safety in relation to: The renewed emphasis on the importance of management, and the key role of senior manager’s, in order to control the elimination of clear and latest failures and given that 90 % of quality problems are caused by the system. The emphasis on the prevention and continuous improvement as opposed to the ‘inspecting in’ of quality or safety at the end of the process, accompanied by an emphasis on ongoing performance measurement, which in turn requires an understanding of (natural and negative) variation, the use of statistical data and analytical techniques, and the use of measures reflecting system performance rather than the final results. The involvement of employees, where proposals for action range from employees being provided the opportunity to contribute ideas given their role as internal customers with a stake in the process, through to the extensive use of improvement teams and self-managed work teams.
Typology of health and safety management system.
There has been little description or analysis of the types of health and safety management systems. One type which described by Denton (2002: 3)] revolves around safe person comparing safe place strategies. Written from an industrial psychology perspective, Denton’s typology differentiate between a work engineer centered viewpoints and an employee people centered viewpoints, having 12 key points of difference as identified in the Table below. Denton equates the work centered approach with Taylor’s management strategies, the close monitoring of safety activities, and autocratic control of acceptable safe methods. Hazard control is centered on design and the engineering out of hazards. Emphasis is placed on formal communication and on job training to ensure expectations are understood well. The employee centered approach, focuses on employee behavior and the management of behavior. Attention is directed to people problem, such as weak attitudes and poor fulfillment of employee needs, informal bottom up communication is favored as a mechanism for the successful utilization of people and ensuring employee needs are considered in the course of policy decisions making. Denton’s points to the determining factors in the choice of approaches as the organization’s view on the causes of negative safety outcomes.
Denton’s typology: work engineer centered and employee people centered approach.
Design hazards out of jobsImprove safety performance of peopleJob specification and health standardsJob performance standardsView poor safety as engineering problemView poor safety as people problemMain cause of accidents is unsafe conditionsMain cause of accidents is unsafe actsPrimarily concerned with machine tools and space of problemsPrimarily concerned with attitudes, desires and spirits problemsScientific and autocratic managementBehavioral and democratic managementCost consciousnessSpirits obligationPhysical conditions of workPsychological conditions of workSpecialization and automationTask work and enrichment of workCompliance with legislative standardsMotivation and education of employeesTop-down communicationBottom-up communicationEmployees work because they have toEmployees want to be involved in work
Discussion: A framework for assessing system type
The review of literature on the safe person and safe place perspectives, and the traditional innovation approaches to health and safety management, allow us to draw out possible critical identifying characteristics of the types of health and safety management systems as follows: Traditional managementHealth and safety is divided in to the supervisors role and the key persons are the supervisor and any health and safety specialistEmployee may be involved but their involvement is not viewed as critical for the operation of the health and safety management systems or alternatively a traditional health and committee is in placeEmphasis either on people management or on technical/program/legislative mechanisms to identify hazardsInnovation managementManagement has a key role in the health and safety effortA high level of integration of health and safety in to broader management systems and practicesEmployee involvement is viewed as critical to system operation and there are mechanisms in place to give effect to a high level of involvementSafe place control strategyPrevention strategy focused on the control of hazards at source through attention at the design stage and application hazard identification. Safe person control strategyPrevention strategies focused on the employees behaviors controlThe compare approach to safety management system of the prevention of main accidentsComparing recognize a wide variety of SMS can effect the controlling risk and that’s why regulations does not specified the exact type of SMS that shall be used as major hazards facility. The used of proved model for SMS simplifies the exercise of building SMS. This booklet describes one possible model configuration of main component for SMS which will be used by the employee. It is important to know that the employee is a free to choose a core elements but it is encouraged that any alternative of SMS used at MHF must easily recognized similarities to the one described in this booklet. If the employee chooses to use alternative configuration to facility SMS, the main component in the booklet can be used as a benchmark. The five main component of benchmark SMS recommended by compare are: Safety policyThis policy describes intention, performance target and the commitment to prevention of accidents at facility. It also establishes a framework that contributes to high quality safety culture at the facility. Also, it should include a reference to employer goals with respect to continuous improvement. PlanningIt is covered a specific strategies for managing the risk associated with hazards identified in facility including the ones with impact on workplace, local community, and environment. It should be documented and include risk strategies for management to achieving the goals. ImplementationIt is a systematic process in safety system that should minimize any risks that contribute to the accidents potentially occurred in facility. Measurement and evaluationAt this stage, the performance of all elements of SMS is fundamental to maintain a robust SMS. Management reviewThe employees are required to ensure that the system within facility continue to meet the needs of the organization. ConclusionManagement has many typesEach case should have own management theoryManaging economicsSafety management can be handled by safety applyingThe persons who involved in management process should be a rate depends on employee count and their natureRecommendationsAll team work members should involve in management training coursesRaise the awareness for management importanceThe management implementation should be applied by competent personsThe courses of management should be take place in industrial field work agendaFurther researches are advised for industrial fields.