Essay, 24 pages (6000 words)

Good road safety guidelines

Good Road Safety Guidelines DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING for the Asian and Pacific Region Asian Development Bank 4. 7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING 4. 7 Recent studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) have shown that in about 95 percent of recorded accidents, driver error was a contributory factor in some form or other. It is, therefore, vital that the human factor is addressed in tackling the problems of road safety. Fundamental to this is an efficient driver testing and training regime. This regime must not only be efficient and cost-effective, but just as important, it must have public confidence. Regrettably, at the moment, it must be said that the systems in some countries are obviously failing on all three counts. It is readily appreciated that driver testing and training are only a small part of a whole series of initiatives necessary to solve the road safety problem. However, these sectors must make an important contribution to any initiative aimed at reducing road casualties and long-term reductions in accident statistics. It is essential that all road users are made more aware of the heavy responsibilities inherent in the possession of a driving license. Novice drivers, especially those in the 17-21 age group, have a disproportionate number of accidents. By training all new drivers in skills for life, there are immeasurable long-term economic and social benefits arising from a more responsible attitude to driving. Driver testing and training procedures are inadequate in many countries in the Asian and Pacific region and, with the rapid pace of motorization, urgent remedial measures are required to improve the situation. The state has a responsibility to ensure that only safe, competent drivers are allowed on roads. The majority of driver training is used only to prepare a candidate for the driving test and therefore the standard of the driving test will determine the extent and quality of driver training. In order to improve driver training, the quality of driving instructors must also be improved and monitored and, in each country, a recommended syllabus for learner drivers should be introduced. PRIORITY ACTIONS NEEDED 1. Ensure that the driving test examines the driver’s judgment, decision making, and ability to drive safely on public roads in normal traffic conditions with stricter tests for drivers of large commercial vehicles. Provide adequate training and staffing for driving examiners and ensure they are taught to drive all vehicles to the highest standards. Organize training courses for professional driving instructors, develop a standardized driver training curriculum, and established a registration system, driving instructors, and driving schools. 2. 3 Effective driver testing is the best way to ensure that only safe, competent drivers are awarded a driver’s license. Good control and registration of driving schools and driving instructors is also highly beneficial in ensuring learners are given competent instruction. ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES 4. 7 – 1 1 INTRODUCTION These sector guidelines on “ Driver Training and Testing” are from a set of Road Safety Guidelines for the Asian and Pacific Region policymakers, developed as part of a regional technical assistance project (RETA 5620: Regional Initiatives in Road Safety) funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This section deals with driver testing and training and emphasizes the responsibility held by all drivers and riders of motorized vehicles. The importance of an early awareness of this responsibility and the value of a structured program of testing and training for all new drivers is detailed. These guidelines are targeted at the rapidly motorizing countries in the Asian and Pacific region and are restricted to standard, conventional licensing programs; i. e., where drivers passing the driving test are treated the same as all other licensed drivers. Advanced programs, such as probationary or graduated licenses, where certain restrictions and stricter penalties are imposed on the learner or novice driver, require a computerized database and an efficient monitoring system. 2 WHY A DRIVER TESTING AND TRAINING SYSTEM ARE NEEDED T here are about 235, 000 road accident deaths in the Asian and Pacific region each year. Recent studies in the UK and US have shown that, in about 95 percent of recorded accidents, driver error was a contributory factor in some form or other. It is, therefore, vital that the human factor is addressed in attempting to solve the problems of road safety. Fundamental to this is an efficient driver testing and training regime. This regime must not only be efficient and cost-effective, but, just as important, it must have public confidence. Driver education should be at the forefront of any program designed to reduce road accident figures. The experience of most countries with growing numbers of vehicles and drivers is that a program of structured training, followed by a valid and reliable test of competence, can contribute towards a reduction in road accidents. The alternative is an unrestricted increase in untrained, undisciplined drivers with an inevi4. 7 – 2 ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES table spiraling in accidents and consequent pain, grief, and costs. Most vehicle accidents are not accidents, but result from a lack of planning, anticipation, concentration, or control by those involved. In industrialized countries, younger drivers (aged between 17 and 21) make up only 10 percent of all license holders but may be involved in more than 20 percent of all accidents; a young male driver is seven times more likely to be involved in a fatal road accident than a middleaged man. However, research by Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) of the UK indicates that lack of driving experience, not immaturity, is the main contributory factor. It also concludes that the more driving situations that are experienced by drivers, the safer they become. Can any country afford to let its new drivers learn by trial and error and kill each other in the process? All new drivers require appropriate instruction and have to be guided through situations where a lack of experience can make them vulnerable and have serious consequences. New drivers, of whatever age group, need to be made aware of the correct attitude and approach from day one of their driving careers. The development of driving as a skill for life should be instilled. Skill in the control of the DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING vehicle needs to be supplemented by many other qualities relating to the vehicle’s interactions with its environment. These can be gained by a mixture of comprehensive training and real-life experience. The need for an effective driver testing and training system is overdue in the Asian and Pacific region for the following reasons: 1) the mixture of motorized and non-mo- torized modes with an inadequate road network and hierarchy, and poor traffic control methods contribute to a difficult driving environment; and 2) the rapid increase in motor vehicles and novice drivers will result in a proportionate increase in accidents unless there is a dramatic improvement in driving standards. 3 KEY COMPONENTS 3. 1 Driver Testing The driving test will always be the main judge of any driver training syllabus. For this reason, although driver training is experienced first, the driving test is reviewed first. Most training is geared towards passing the driving test rather than teaching the student to become a safe and competent driver. In newly motorizing countries, ensuring proper training through a comprehensive driving test is the most practical way to improve the standards of novice drivers. a) Legislation The traffic regulations must define both the legal authorities of the state that controls driver licensing and specify the requirements for potential license holders. Licensing legislation is discussed in Sector Guidelines 4. 10, but should include criteria on the following: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) While 18 is the standard minimum age, according to the EC Directive 91/439/EEC, for legal driving of cars, the age for driving a light (or low-powered) motorcycle is only 16 and the minimum for commercial passenger carrying vehicles, i. e., those with more than eight seats, is 21. In the Asian and Pacific region, the minimum age for driving commercial vehicles is typically set higher (although only 18 in the Republic of Korea and 19 in the Phil ippines) with a requirement for one year or more experience of driving light vehicles. License durations (including duration of a learner’s license) should be specified by law. In several Asian and Pacific countries, the learning period allowed by the validity of a learner’s license is too short and should be expanded to a 6-12 month period. Their is no real advantage in road safety terms of imposing a short duration for the normal driving license. In the UK, for example, light vehicle driving licenses do not require renewal until the holder reaches the age of 70, after which the duration between renewals is three years. Heavy commercial vehicle licenses last until age 45, after which they need to be renewed every five years until age 60 and then annually; these renewals must be accompanied by a medical report form. Several Asian countries have adopted legislation restricting newly-qualified motorcycle riders from carrying passengers for the first year. Such legislation should be linked to the display of probationer plates on the motorcycle. As with all legislation, only that which can be enforced should be enacted, in order to promote respect for the law. Legislation should, where possible, enable changes in the driving licensing procedures without lengthy delays. For example, countries may wish to introduce driving licenses with photographs or holograms as security measures. b) Medical examination minimum driving ages by vehicle type; vehicle classifications; medical limitations; driving test procedures; provision for training; and restrictions on learner or novice drivers. License categories should follow international guidelines to enable interchangeability and acceptance in other countries. Such classifications should be similar to those set out in European Community (EC) Directive 91/ 439/EEC. The medical examination could in practice be limited to an eyesight check (a simple test of reading a registration plate at 20. 5 meters [67 feet] is still used in the UK) and a consent form declaring that the candidate has none of the medical conditions specified in legislation as prohibiting driving. Many countries still use a medical or general board to test the candidate’s mental or physical fitness, although the growing number of license candidates may cause backlogs and problems. ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES 4. 7 – 3 DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING c) Theory examination In addition to the pure driving skills of candidates, their knowledge should also be subject to examination. A theory examination should test the candidates’ knowledge of the highway code: traffic signs, traffic regulations, as well as basic knowledge of vehicle performance and simple safety checks before using a vehicle. It may be tested in one of several ways. Test by oral examination, while labor intensive, is still appropriate in countries where the literacy rate is low. In this case, the oral examination may be carried out by the driving examiner either immediately before or after the practical driving test and should follow a set pattern. If a formalized question paper or computer-based exam is used, it should be taken before the practical driving test and passing will be a prerequisite for the practical test. It must be emphasized that literacy is not necessarily a requirement for a good driver and that, for most countries, there is no requirement to move immediately to a state-of-the-art testing system. Where a theoretical (oral or written) test is used, it should be available in all the main languages in use within the country or the use of translators should be permitted. A test covering sufficient topics will require about 50 questions and last about 45 minutes. Subjects covered by the theory test should include at least the following topics: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) perception skills without exceeding their capabilities. Pedestrian crossings and junctions (right and left turns), including roundabouts, should be included to provide opportunity for give way testing. The on-road test should include (but not be limited to) the following checks and exercises: 1) take proper precautions before starting the engine of the vehicle; 2) make proper use of all controls; 3) position normally on the road and make normal stops in a safe place; 4) drive at a speed appropriate for the con- ditions; 5) make effective use of rearview mirrors; 6) give all necessary signals; 7) show alertness and anticipation of the actions of other road users; 8) overtake, meet, and cross the path of other vehicles safely; 9) act properly at road junctions; 10) take appropriate action at pedestrian crossings; and 11) take prompt and appropriate action on all traffic signs, road markings, traffic lights, signals by traffic controllers and other road users. Motorcycle tests can be conducted by an examiner observing set exercises on a normal road system or by specially trained examiners, riding their own machine, following the test candidate round a set route on normal roads. Contact can be easily maintained by simple radio equipment. By its very nature, this would be a more expensive option. Careful location of a number of examiners around a route could enable a large number of motorcycle tests to be performed efficiently. When testing drivers of heavy goods vehicles or large buses, recognition should be given to the fact that the potential for damage by these vehicles is extremely high. It is recommended that the time taken to examine a candidate for a vehicle in one of these categories should be about twice that for a driving test for a light vehicle. Large vehicles should have an area of prescribed minimum dimensions available for maneuvering exercises. It is important that vehicles on these off-road areas do not interfere with one another. Standardized assessment forms are necessary to ensure consistency among tests, to facilitate monitoring and to provide feedback. Errors should be precoded and thus standardized. traffic regulations; vehicle handling; vehicle maneuvering procedures; hazard perception; and effects of weather and road conditions on driving. Practical driving test d) Few countries conduct the whole practical test on public roads but use off-road facilities to examine the technical control of vehicles; i. e., emergency stop, hill start, zigzag maneuvers, and parallel parking. Normally the off-road test is carried out first and this is followed by the on-road test, which should be conducted in light traffic on normal roads. All test routes should ideally be on-road, although it is acceptable to have a combination of offand on-road routes. They should be as uniform as possible and include a common range of typical road and traffic conditions. The test route should be chosen to test candidates’ hazard 4. 7 – 4 ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING Figure 1: UK Driving Test Assessment Form. It is recognized that drivers will experience many different conditions that cannot be examined. These include nighttime driving and driving in rain, mist, ice, or snow, and on high speed highways or gravel roads. In spite of these deficiencies, it is not feasible to extend tests to any other conditions than those experienced on the day of t h e test. There is, therefore, an opportunity for driving schools to offer training courses in conditions such as night, snow, or highway driving. The taking of such courses could be encouraged by insurance companies as a dual road safety and cost reduction program. e) Driving examiners No matter how elaborate or strict the driving test is designed to be, it can be effective only if driving examiners are properly trained and have adequate time to conduct the test. The increase in driving examiners has not kept up with the increase in license applicants. Lack of staffing has had a greater impact than inadequate training. Even with forms and procedures, the effectiveness is wasted if only a few minutes is available for each test due to demand. All examiners, whether employed to test drivers of cars, motorcycles, heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), or public service vehicles (PSVs), or for the police or the military, should be subject to the same training and should be qualified to drive all categories of vehicles that they are likely to examine. Examiners should be trained to drive to an exemplary standard at all times. Training should include both an external course as well as a probationary period (three to six months) on the job. One-week refresher courses for existing driving examiners should also be conducted on a regular basis. It is essential that driving examiners are seen to be fair and impartial and that the test sets a uniform standard wherever it is applied. Examiners should give clear directions and instructions, and should be understanding and sympathetic, making every effort to put the candidate at ease. They should assess and mark driving faults as they occur. It is useful to have a standard form (Figure 1) that examiners complete during the actual test (i. e., not retrospectively). Driving examiners should be subject to frequent supervision to ensure that their individual assessment is checked and that the tests are being conducted in accordance with the regulations. Test results can easily be monitored by computer over any period. Any pronounced individual variation from the average results obtained by colleagues in similar areas would readily show up. To facilitate this checking process, it is necessary that records of tests should be retained and collated at regular intervals. Examiners can be recruited from many backgrounds. They need to have good interpersonal skills, have a wide driving experience of most types of vehicles, be good communicators, and be able to write clear and concise reports quickly. An even temperament to cope with often stressful situations is essential, together with a firm and confident manner. To avoid any accusation of corruption, examiners should not be made aware of their test programs before the day of the test. They should not be permitted to give driving instruction themselves or be associated with any driving schools. Candidates with criminal records should not be permitted to become driving examiners. f) Test administration Clear requirements for the administration of driver testing are necessary. These should cover all classes of driving licenses and should be available in published format for sale to the public. A complete list of areas to be tested and standards required should also be published. There should be an appeals procedure to cover allegations from candidates that tests have not been conducted in accordance with the regulations. However, there should be no appeal against the result of the test apart from the above reason. Appeals can be easily investigated by senior examiners if there is a standard marking and reporting system for each test. Driving test centers need to be convenient for large numbers of the population and it is ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES 4. 7 – 5 DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING important that potential drivers do not have to travel unreasonable distances for their test. These centers should be able to accommodate sufficient numbers of examiners to meet the likely demand for tests in that area and also provide waiting and toilet facilities for candidates. Parking should be convenient at the test center and provision made for all types of tests that are to be carried out at the center. For example, it may be considered convenient to carry out some of the test exercises off-road at marked-out areas. Theory tests and medicals may also be provided at the same venue if considered practical. Clerical staff may be necessary if tests are booked at a local level. Computers will ease this function and the collating of test results. In countries with a widely distributed population, it may not prove feasible to combine the requirements of reasonable distances with expected demand for driving tests. In this case, it may prove acceptable to use a traveling examination center in which examiners may travel to outlying towns either regularly or on demand to carry out driving tests (e. g., once a sufficient number of candidates makes a trip worthwhile). Depending on the size of the country and demand for tests, there should be a senior manager with day to day responsibility for the operation of the driving test organization. They should be supported by supervising examiners to monitor the testing and training systems and assess the validity of appeals. They will also be supported by clerical staff to monitor test and training results for uniformity, to maintain a booking and cash handling system, prepare statistical summaries of driving test data, and perform staff administration. g) Cost recovery Examiner training facilities need to be considered. Classrooms, accommodation, training staff, and vehicles will all need to be costed into the driving test fee. A central training establishment is found to be usually more costeffective. The cost of training and training facilities should be taken into account when setting the fees for driving tests. Further cost recuperation can come from the dual use of such an establishment to train candidate driving instructors. Driving instructors are charged for entry examinations to the instructor register and also pay an annual fee. These charges also help to defray the cost of the testing operation. The publication of official guidelines to help candidates prepare for tests can also be a worthwhile source of revenue. 3. 2 Driver Training a) Curriculum The provision of a driving license should always be seen as a privilege and not a right. The provision of a testing regime infrastructure amounts to considerable capital sum with substantial running costs. However, most countries using a testing system, as described, try to recoup the running costs from the driving test fees. Administration staff and management do not usually conduct tests, so the cost of their services should also be recouped from driving test fees. There are no known instances of countries providing a driving test as a free public service. 4. 7 – 6 ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES In most industrialized countries, driver training is seen as a necessary requirement in the quest for a driving license or permit. The normal approach is to follow a syllabus that covers sufficient elements to enable the student to pass a test for granting of the license. Ideally, the syllabus and the training should aim to prepare learner drivers for all potential hazards and situations and not just those tested by the examiner at the time of the test. But in reality, it cannot. It is evident that most candidates are concerned only about learning enough to pass the test. Driving is a skill that takes years to master properly. Learning does not and should not stop when the candidate passes the driving test. Safe driving is as much about attitude as about ability to control the car. Driver training should not only introduce this message but should reinforce it throughout training. The learner must also gain the following: 1) a thorough knowledge of the highway code and the motoring laws; and 2) a thorough understanding of the respon- sibilities of a driver. This means that drivers must have real concern, not only for their own safety, but for the safety of all road users, including pedestrians. There can be no minimum number of lessons, as the requirements of each pupil will depend on a variety of factors. The syllabus will list DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING the skills in which basic competence must be achieved in order to pass the driving test (see Plate 1). Any syllabus for learner drivers of motor vehicles should cover the following main headings: 1) legal requirements; 2) car controls, equipment, and compo3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) nents; road user behavior; vehicle characteristics; road and weather conditions; traffic signs, rules, and regulations; car control and road procedure; and additional general knowledge about driving-related situations. Plate 1: Typical driving test manual. Trainees should be made aware of the need to take further training to cover those aspects not included in the “ official” test. For motorcycle riders, training needs to emphasize their vulnerability and the risk of not using an approved safety helmet. Defensive driver training, either as part of the initial training or as an advanced driver course, has been found to be effective, especially in reducing accidents involving company vehicle drivers. Once the initial training syllabus has been determined, it may be useful to consider defensive driver training as an accident prevention strategy. Initially, large companies could be approached and the scheme then extended to the general public, if the decision is taken not to include such techniques in initial training. Again this kind of training may be left to the private sector. Depending on the mix in the vehicle fleet of a country, it may also be necessary to consider training and testing requirements for drivers of nonmotorized vehicles. It is likely to be impractical, however, and publicity relating to general road behavior may be more cost-effective and productive. b) Driving instructors Governments must ensure that people advertising themselves as driving instructors are qualified to do so. In order to receive a qualification they must have successfully completed a training course organized by the appropriate authorities and be qualified to drive vehicles of the type in which they wish to instruct. Once qualified, their names should appear on a register of driving instructors and they are then entitled to charge for driving lessons. However, it is not essential that learners be instructed only by a qualified driving instructor. In many countries, a variety of options exist for learners varying from driving instructors to training by family members or friends who are qualified drivers. Driving instructors should have the ability to impart practical and theoretical knowledge to their students. As well as the obvious skills in driving the vehicles and giving demonstrations of techniques where appropriate, they should be conversant and comfortable with classroom procedures and be good communicators. It should always be remembered that a competent driver does not necessarily make a good driving instructor, but a competent driving instructor must always be a good driver. In an ideal situation, all instructors would be trained and qualified in these techniques ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES 4. 7 – 7 DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING by a recognized authority and this should be the aim of any driving instructor registration scheme. The most efficient way to monitor the profession is by way of a central register. This ensures that the public can be assured that an acceptable standard of tuition is offered by all instructors and driving schools. It should be illegal for anyone to charge for driving instruction unless their name is on the register. There is no reason why driving instructors should be employed by the government. A privatized tuition system where driving schools operate in a free market environment works well in most countries. Individual instructors either work for multivehicle schools or are selfemployed with only one vehicle. It is now recognized that an official supervisory system is necessary to ensure that standards of instruction are maintained. There also needs to be a facility to ensure that unsatisfactory or criminal practices are punished by removal from the roll of driving instructors. Potential driving instructors should be required to pass a qualifying examination. This should cover: theory: a multiple-choice question paper on all aspects of driving and instruction; practical driving: a test of driving ability to advanced standards and lasting about one hour; and instructional ability: a practical test where the potential instructor gives a lesson to a assessing examiner on a random driving topic. Each of these modules must be passed in turn before going on to the next stage. Only on satisfactory completion of all three modules is the instructor eligible to join the register. A fee is paid to remain on the register and continued membership is dependent on favorable reports from frequent check tests by government inspectors (the fees should cover the costs of inclusion on the register and supervision). Similarly, although separate, schemes need to be considered to provide adequate training for instructors of motorcyclists and drivers of HGVs and PSVs. Some countries allow approved driving instructors to test drivers at the end of a recognized training course. This procedure does require intensive supervision to ensure that the system is not abused. It can also be useful to standardize the various systems of driver training and testing within a group of neighboring 4. 7 – 8 ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES countries. This should ideally involve development of a common policy on the grouping of vehicles and the requirements of tests for licenses for the various groups. c) Driving schools It has been found to be beneficial to register driving schools separately from driving instructors, but it is not essential. It will encourage driving schools to meet criteria, such as having registered instructors, adequate numbers of training vehicles, and lecture rooms for theory training (see Plate 1). This ensures better quality control as instructors and schools can be taken off the register or disciplined for any corruption or other deficiencies. There are also benefits in organizing a driving schools association to aid coordination between driving schools and to establish an industry code of practice (such as happens in Fiji). Driving schools can also be involved in the training and rehabilitation of offenders, especially if the government organizations such as the police do not have the necessary resources. 4 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT This section describes the typical stages in the organization of driver testing in developing countries. It is not necessarily meant to imply that, to get from stage one to stage four, stages two and three have to be taken in the sequence shown. In some countries it may be possible to miss a whole stage to improve the system. The ultimate aim must be to implement a driver testing regime that fairly and adequately prepares new drivers for the challenges of driving. 1) Stage 1: This is a basic but ineffective level. Tests are conducted mainly offroad or on quiet local roads. The test is short and simple (less than 10 minutes) and requires little training for drivers. There are few examiners as they have little or no training and with no written procedures or monitoring. The driving examiners are often also required to conduct vehicle inspections. 2) Stage 2: This next level is first seen in major urban areas while Stage 1 may continue to exist in provincial areas. On- DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING or off-road tests are carried out but they are not standardized. Driver training schools begin to develop and training may be offered for instructors. The examiners will begin to be concerned solely with driving tests and routine monitoring will be conducted. 3) Stage 3: Assessment forms are introduced and used by driving examiners, and monitoring of driving instructors and driving schools started. The focus on training will be shifting away from classroom and mechanical knowledge to hazard perception and practical training. A basic theory test will be included. 4) Stage 4: Feedback is given to candidates, and a monitoring system in place with publication of statistics. Quality assurance of exam system will lead to improvements in examiner consistency. An adequate number of examiners will be available and the test workload will be adjusted to suit the number of examiners. A theory test will be introduced that will comprehensively assess candidates’ knowledge. It is essential that improvements in the driving tests are introduced immediately before or simultaneously with improvements in training. If this is not done, it will prove difficult to improve driver training standards. Driver training must be led by improvements in the requirements for the driving test. monitoring could also extend to traffic citation data if available. The introduction of such a change in driver licensing should not be seen in isolation and the benefits should be widely publicized. Inevitably they will initially result in the lowering of the pass rate. This is no bad thing, especially when the pass rate may have been excessively high (e. g., more than 80 percent) on first test. One way of fine-tuning the system will be to establish the current pass rate and gradually bring in changes to the test to reduce it. The introduction of professional driving instruction should then gradually counteract this reduction and tend to improve the pass rate. Driving schools should be monitored on the basis of obtained pass rates. Consideration should be given to retraining and/or retesting drivers who have committed serious motoring offences. This should have a deterrent effect on any tendency towards reckless or aggressive driving and can actively assist in the reduction of accident figures. Categories of vehicles and drivers that show high accident rates should also be targeted for possible revisions to training or testing procedures or standards. 6 EXAMPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE 5 BENEFITS AND EFFECTS Any road safety improvements such as those described in this sector have to be seen as a long-term policy designed to accelerate the acquisition of driving experience and thus improve the skills of new drivers and the safety of all road users. The positive aspects of a structured training program followed by a professional, valid test should be readily recognized by most drivers. The effect on road safety and accident figures will not be immediate, however, as it will take time for the more highly skilled drivers to become a significant percentage of the total. These improvements must be linked into an efficient accident data system in order that the qualifications of drivers involved in accidents may be monitored. This A standardized Euro-test based on the best practices of all member countries is planned to be implemented throughout the European Union. This planning is at an advanced stage. It is one of the conditions of entry for any aspiring member country that their driver testing will follow similar patterns. The UK implemented a driving test for light vehicles and motorcycles in 1935 and has since developed and refined this test. The HGV and PSV tests for professional drivers have been in existence for more than 25 years and the professional register for Approved Driving Instructors for about the same period. In 1996, a written theory test replaced the previous informal question-and-answer session held at the end of the driving test. This is based on a multiplechoice question paper and has to be passed before the candidate can sit the practical driving test. All of these systems are now administered by the Driving Standards Agency (DSA), a division of the Department of Transport formed in 1990. ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES 4. 7 – 9 DRIVER TRAINING AND TESTING The Agency has its own central training establishment where initial and refresher courses are given to all examiners. Promotion courses and pilot exercises for possible improvements to test practices are a regular feature. Trainees from many countries have attended four-week basic examiner training and in recent years, Australia; Bangladesh; Hong Kong, China; and Sri Lanka are among the governments that have used the facilities. It is recommended that all countries should move, eventually, to the type of on-road test undertaken in developed countries. At present, tests in many Asian and Pacific countries are carried out on a mixture of off-road and onroad locations. Some countries (e. g., Republic of Korea) still carry out the whole test offroad, even though this means that the driver will never actually drive in normal traffic until after passing the test. Despite such undesirable systems, there are a number of examples of good practice in the region. Each province in the People’s Republic of China has designated driving schools and these normally own large off-road areas with networks of roads, intersections, parking practice areas, and ramps (for hill starts). They also own fleets of vehicles that are used for driver instruction and trainees must pass a series of modules as part of their training. The test itself is carried out by traffic police driving examiners who visit the driving schools by arrangement to conduct the test. Some of the test is conducted on the off-road facility and if the driver performs satisfactorily, the remainder of the test is undertaken by driving 15-20 minutes on the real roads in normal traffic. In Fiji, the driving test is conducted largely on the normal road network and only parking and a few other basic maneuvers are tested offroad. A recent ADB-funded road safety project implemented improvements such as the introduction of a new theory test that could be conducted orally and had a preset pass mark, standardized test routes, and the production of manuals for licensing (including driving schools and instructors). Training was also given to all driving examiners on the new manual and procedures. The monitoring system has been improved and checks have been imposed on driving examiners. Efforts have also been made to strengthen the driving school industry in Fiji by developing a code of practice and standardized training curriculum. A defensive driving instructor course was also developed and many driving instructors were trained as defensive driving instructors. Driver training in Kazakstan is undertaken by a mixture of organizations with the best training schools being well-equipped with classrooms containing displays of traffic signs and typical situations, and technical displays of vehicles, components, and systems. Students take about three months to complete their training, which includes 190 hours of theoretical training plus eight hours on a driving simulator and 22 hours driving a vehicle. However, this thoroughness of training is not matched by the eventual test, during which only 10 theory questions are asked and a short practical test, lasting about 15 minutes, is given. In Singapore, special large off-road areas are available containing a network of roads with various types of junctions, ramps, and parking practice areas for learner drivers to practice on. Part of the driving test is carried out off-road at these locations and part of the test is conducted on the road network in normal traffic. This appears to work well. 7 REFERENCES AND KEY DOCUMENTS 1. Information on driving tests or driver training in the UK can be obtained from: DSA Head Office, Stanley House, 56 Talbot Street, Nottingham NG1 5GU, UK. Fax: (44 115) 955 7735. 2. Information on examiner training can be obtained from: The Training Manager, DSA Training Establishment, Paul Waller Avenue, Cardington, Bedford MK45 3ST, UK. Fax: (44 1234) 742 728. 3. DSA. 1992. Driving Skills: The Driving Manual . UK: The Stationery Office (ISBN 0 11 551054 0). 4. DSA. 1995. Driving Skills: Your Driving Test. UK: The Stationery Office (ISBN 0 11 551158 X). Information on 3 and 4 can be obtained from; The Stationery Office P. O. Box No. 276 London SW8 5DT, UK, or Overseas Sales, The Stationery Office, Fax: (44 171) 873 8203 4. 7 – 10 ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES Road Safety Guidelines for the Asian and Pacific Region The guidelines cover 14 individual sectors affecting road safety, with four introductory chapters and four appendices. Information is presented in a series of freestanding documents that can be extracted for distribution and discussion. Executive Summary 1: Introduction and Background 2: Road Safety Trends in the Asian and Pacific Region 3: Road Safety Action Plans and Programs 4. 1: Coordination and Management of Road Safety 4. 2: Road Accident Data Systems 4. 3: Road Safety Funding and the Role of the Insurance Industry 4. 4: Safe Planning and Design of Roads 4. 5: Improvement of Hazardous Locations 4. 6: Road Safety Education of Children 4. 7: Driver Training and Testing 4. 8: Road Safety Publicity and Campaigns 4. 9: Vehicle Safety Standards 4. 10: Traffic Legislation 4. 11: Traffic Police and Law Enforcement 4. 12: Emergency Assistance to Road Accident Victims 4. 13: Road Safety Research 4. 14: Road Accident Costing Appendix A: Useful Documents Worth Acquiring Appendix B: International Contacts and Organizations Appendix C: Comparative Study: Fiji Road Safety Action Plan Appendix D: Comparative Statistics For more information on ADB, visit: http://www. adb. org

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EduPony. (2022) 'Good road safety guidelines'. 5 February.


EduPony. (2022, February 5). Good road safety guidelines. Retrieved from https://edupony.com/good-road-safety-guidelines/


EduPony. 2022. "Good road safety guidelines." February 5, 2022. https://edupony.com/good-road-safety-guidelines/.

1. EduPony. "Good road safety guidelines." February 5, 2022. https://edupony.com/good-road-safety-guidelines/.


EduPony. "Good road safety guidelines." February 5, 2022. https://edupony.com/good-road-safety-guidelines/.

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"Good road safety guidelines." EduPony, 5 Feb. 2022, edupony.com/good-road-safety-guidelines/.

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