- Published: November 19, 2022
- Updated: November 19, 2022
- University / College: Michigan State University
- Level: Bachelors Degree
- Language: English
- Downloads: 22
What factors contribute to the global spread of AIDS and what are countries and organisations doing to combat this problem?
The Factors Contributing to the Global Spread of AIDS
Mondal and Shitan (2013) reported that the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS globally has become a barrier to the progress of human civilization and economic development. Alfsen (2004), Hellandendu (2012) and Coovadia and Hadingham (2005) point out that the factors fueling the growth of the AIDS epidemic include cultural values like traditions and religious beliefs and poverty. However, Hellandendu (2012), like Morrison (2001) and Coovadia and Hadingham (2005) went ahead to propose that the inequality that arises from poverty, gender and international relationships are the major factor leading to the intensification of the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Mondal and Shitan (2013) present a different point of view, proposing that the factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS include higher adolescent fertility, which increases the risk of HIV. The factors limiting the spread of the disease include cultural restrictions like those of Muslims and the sufficiency of medical personnel.
The Actions of Governments and Organizations in Addressing the Problem
Coovadia and Hadingham (2005) and Milbank Memorial Fund (2004) point out that the search for solutions to the AIDS pandemic has included the formation of different international funds; the major target of these efforts has been poorer regions, but the mitigation measures seem not to reverse the rapid spread of AIDS. In particular, Milbank Memorial Fund (2004) discussed the efforts of the US towards combating the AIDS pandemic, where it pledged to given USD 15 billion, over the 5-year period that started in 2003. Mondal and Shitan (2013) and Alfsen (2004) point out that, the efforts of combating the crisis have included increasing the numbers of physicians in practice, as well as relying on religious restrictions. Alfsen (2004), Morrison (2001) and WHO (2011) in particular, stated that the national efforts aimed at addressing the problem include the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the supply of antiretroviral medication and treatment, the World Health Organization has partnered with national government in preventing the spread, through the initiation of behavior change programs; care delivery, strengthening healthcare systems and increasing the availability of HIV/AIDS information (WHO, 2014).
CDC (2012) and Alfsen (2004) point out that, more advanced medical-related efforts of addressing the spread of AIDS have included the funding of research, with the aim of developing virucides and microbicides. The AIDS pandemic has been intensifying globally, despite that some regions are affected more. Lewis, Latif and Ndowa (2007) and World Bank (2006) explored the factors undermining the success of the mitigation strategies employed; these factors include the ineffectiveness of the healthcare sectors of underdeveloped nations. Other factors limiting the success of mitigation strategies include environmental and social factors, human rights issues, sexual behaviors and biological factors (Lewis, Latif and Ndowa, 2007). In addressing the spread of AIDS and the factors limiting the effectiveness of mitigation efforts, the WHO endorsed the global strategy, which will push member states towards more effective control and prevention of AIDS among other STIs.
The Strengths of the Arguments of the Authors
The strengths of the arguments presented about the AIDS pandemic include that they are sufficiently supported using evidence, and the different authors and organizations present the information in a coherent manner. The points explored flow logically from one author to another or organization. For example, Lewis, Latif and Ndowa (2007) and World Bank (2006) explored similar barriers to the success of the mitigation strategies; more recent and older authors Morrison (2001) and WHO (2011) emphasize the introduction of antiretroviral therapy as a solution employed towards addressing the AIDS pandemic. Other strengths of the arguments presented included that the authors used both qualitative and quantitative approaches sufficiently, and the conclusions were presented clearly and coherently. The weaknesses of the arguments presented include that the different authors and organizations have not explored the ways of addressing the persistent nature of the AIDS pandemic.
Summary of Main Points
In summary, the different authors and organization have discussed the factors contributing to the uncontained spread of AIDS. These factors include cultural, socioeconomic, environmental and biological causes. The mitigation solutions implemented by countries and organizations, towards addressing the AIDS crisis include health programs, educational programs, research and development and social programs to counteract the crisis. The arguments presented by the different authors and organizations are strong, despite the fact that they did not explore the mitigation of the factors limiting the effectiveness of the programs, when addressing the AIDS crisis.
Alfsen, A., 2004. Environmental factors in HIV/AIDS epidemic development: new perspectives for gender equity and global protection against HIV transmission. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1023, pp. 164-74.
CDC. 2012. CDC Global Healthy Strategy 2012-2015. [e-book]Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at:
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Coovadia, H. and Hadingham, J., 2005. HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks. Globalization and Health, 1, pp. 13.
Hellandendu, J., 2012. Contributory Factors to the Spread of HIV/AIDS and it Impacts in Sub-Saharan African Countries. European Scientific Journal, 8(14), pp. 144-150.
Milbank Memorial Fund. 2004. Addressing the HIV/AIDS Pandemic:
A U. S. [e-book] Global AIDS Strategy for the Long Term. Council on Foreign Relations: Milbank Memorial Fund. Available at:
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Mondal, M. and Shitan, M., 2013. Factors affecting the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an ecological analysis of global data. Afr Health Sci, 13(2), pp. 301–310.
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Morrison, L., 2001. The global epidemiology of HIV/ AIDS. Br Med Bull, 58 (1), pp. 7-18.
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World Bank., 2006. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: World Bank.
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