Research Paper, 5 pages (1300 words)

Free research paper on reproductive and respiratory systems


The research paper is on two of the organ systems. The discussion will be the reproductive and respiratory systems. The research will include the effects of the two body systems on the skin. The discussion will involve a brief description of reproduction and respiratory systems. In addition, the organs involved in the two systems will be discussed. The function of the systems and their organs will also be discussed. The health operations of reproduction and respiratory systems will be included in the discussion. Moreover, the pathologies, diseases and disorders that can cause effects on the skin are covered in the paper. The paper will include a brief discussion of how to maintain healthy systems. The ways of improving the system, to have a positive result, are tackled. The reproduction and respiratory system organs, functions, and effects on the skin and body involve the understanding of the whole body.

Reproduction system

Reproduction system involves giving rise to new lives. The system is not essential in keeping an individual alive as other systems like the respiratory system. The reproduction system main role is to manufacture cells that permit reproduction. The human reproductive system involves two gametes or sex cells. This is the male sperm or gamete and female egg or ovum gamete. The two reproductive systems meet to give rise to a new creature. The male organs involved in the reproduction system are penis, seminal vesicles, and testes. The female reproduction system organs include the vagina, vulva, ovaries, fallopian tube, and uterus or womb (MacGregor, 2008). In addition, the breast is included in the system as they develop into food during pregnancy for the newborn baby.
The female and male parts are involved, in the production system, to create a new person. In addition, the reproduction system organs also bring cells together. The reproduction system is accompanied by physical and emotional changes in human beings. This starts from the puberty period where the reproduction system develops to some changes. The organs involved in female include the uterus that leads to hormonal regulation. The changes lead to sexual intercourse and eventually conception. Sperms from the male sex swim through the cervix, to the uterus, by the fallopian tube, of the female. The ovary from the female sex is released and travels n the opposite direction through the fallopian tube. They meet, and eggs from the female sex are fertilized by the sperm to from a baby.
There are various reproduction systems and organs diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases, which are caused by infections passed as a result of unsafe sexual practices. The diseases include fungal, viral, and bacterial infections such as herpes, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, candidacies, among others. The diseases can lead to infertility and serious complications. Other includes cancer of the uterus like cervical and uterine sarcomas cancers, among others (Baxamusa, 2011). The diseases need chemotherapy and hysterectomy to remove the cancerous cells.

Human respiratory system

The system involves a multifaceted set of tissues and organs that use the oxygen from the environment. The organs then transport the oxygen into the body via the lungs. The respiratory system main function in the body is to transport air into the lungs. In addition, the system helps in the diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream (Judith, 2004). The organs involve in the system receive the waste Carbon dioxide in the body from the blood. This is then exhaled into the air via the respiratory organs.
The system has two parts namely; the lower and upper respiratory tracts. The upper parts of the respiratory tract include the nose, mouth and nasal cavity. Other pars are larynx and pharynx. Nose, mouth and nasal cavity parts function is to filter, moisten, and warm the incoming air. The pharynx is divided by the throat into oesophagus which is the food pipe and trachea which is the wind pipe. The part has a small flap of cartilage known as epiglottis that prevents food from getting into the trachea. Larynx also called the voice box is the section where sound is generated in the human body system. In addition, larynx aids in the protection of trachea. This is done by the production of a muscular cough reflex that prevents solid objects passing to the epiglottis.
The lower parts of the respiratory tract system include trachea, bronchioles, bronchi, diaphragm, and alveoli. The trachea also called the windpipe is a hose that transports air to the lungs from the throat. Trachea inner membrane has tiny hairs known as cilia. The cilia catch particles of dust that can be removed from the body through coughing. Trachea is also surrounded by cartilage which helps in opening and protecting the trachea. The cartilages are not complete circles as the oesophogus is behind the trachea. The trachea needs, to partly collapse, so as; the oesophogus can expand when large pieces of food are swallowed (Wong, 2008). Trachea is divided into Bronchi. The Bronchi are two, with one entering the right and the other left of the lung. The left bronchi are longer, narrow, and horizontal compared to the right bronchi. The bronchi have irregular rings of cartilage that have smooth muscle. The bronchioles are the divided bronchi. They are narrow tubes without cartilage and leads to the alveolar sacs. The cavities have alveolar sacs or ducts. The alveoli have thin walls that allow for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases. A network of capillaries surrounds the alveoli. This is where the stimulated gasses pass. An average adult has about 3 million alveoli in his lungs. Diaphragm is a large band of muscle that sits beneath the lungs. The diaphragm is attached to the lower ribs, lumbar spine, and sternum and forms the foundation of the thoracic cavity.
The respiratory system has some diseases and disorders that affect the organs that make the system. The diseases and disorders include pneumonia, asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (Lisabetta, 2011). Pneumonia is an alveoli infection caused by viruses and bacteria. Patients require supplemental oxygen. Asthma is the periodic constriction of the bronchioles and bronchi disease. The disorder makes breathing difficult, and can be triggered by airborne particles or irritants like cigarette smoke and chemical fumes. This makes patients allergic. Emphysema is the other disorder that the alveoli walls break down. The condition can develop slowly and lead to death. In addition, chronic bronchitis is a disorder that involves an irritant that reaches the bronchioles and bronchi and secretes mucus. COPD and lung cancer infect the lungs.


The reproduction and respiration system can work together. This happens when a pregnant mother requires oxygen for herself and the unborn baby. The oxygen is needed for life and growing of the baby. The body systems and functioning involve both male and female. Nonetheless, in the production system two varied systems are needed for the male and female sexes (Sylvia, 2004). The systems diseases and disorders can lead to severe health complications. The cells, organs and systems of the body coordinate to keep persons alive. The organs and cells release various toxic wastes, by products and other noxious substances. Medical attention is needed to get rid of the diseases. Medical complications such as infertility, mental confusion, sleep disorders, delirium, toxicity, among other can be developed in case of delayed medication.

Baxamusa, B. (2011, September 19). Common Excretory System Diseases. Buzzle. com.
Retrieved from http://www. buzzle. com/articles/common-excretory-system-diseases. html

Judith, J. (2004). The Respiratory System. Michigan: Lerner Publications.

Lisabetta, D. (2011, March 11). List of Diseases of the Respiratory System. LiveStrong.
Retrieved from http://www. livestrong. com/article/79558-list-diseases-respiratory-system/

MacGregor, J. (2008). Introduction to the Anatomy and Physiology of Children. Kentucky:
Taylor & Francis, 2008

Sylvia, M. (2004). Human Biology. California: McGraw Hill Publishing.
Wong, G., William A. (2008). Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and
Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection: Virology: Research and Treatment 1,
17-28. Retrieved from http://www. la-press. com/antibiotic-mediated-inhibition-of-

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