- Published: November 25, 2021
- Updated: November 25, 2021
- Language: English
- Downloads: 34
Development in food industry, entry of multiple brands and rising customer expectations is leading various food companies to manage their quality effectively. Unlike other business, where products have long shelf life and verity of products under specific brand is also limited, food business works on just in time strategy. For any food company it is very important to manage great variety of food items even if the target is a particular segment. Food companies are required to offer great variety, good quality and companies are adopting various quality management approaches delightful service to manage all the processes effectively and standardize food quality and services.
There are various scientific and statistical quality control management models given by quality management leaders. Dr. Deming has given total quality management approach to manage various processes and own a complete quality control. His total quality management approach has been adapted by various organizations across the world. Dr. Deming proposed six concepts for managing overall quality of organizations and He also provided 14 important points need to be focused while working on 6 concepts. The six concepts proposed by Deming are; 1 – company’s strategy. 2 – Human resource management. 3 – Measurement of results. 4 – Training and supervision. 5 – Quality assurance. 6 – Purchasing policy. The concepts proposed by Dr. Deming are found very useful in controlling all the process and managing quality and services in food industry.
Out of 14 points given by Deming, Major points are; 1. Create constancy to stay in business and to improve product and services. 2. Adopt new philosophy. 3. Cease dependence on inspection and develop quality in first place. 4. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service. 5. Break down barriers between departments. 6. The aim of supervisors is to help employees, work for quality and motivate employees to work for transformation and self development.
The points given by Deming are very useful in various food related business. For example, in restaurant business it is very much important to provide quality in first place. Development and changes in food menu should keep on improving, depending upon the test and trends of the target market. In other business like food distribution and supply chain, these strategies play an important role in supplying good quality of food on time and effective management of distribution network. Based on some research findings it has been observed that for few food companies the aim is not customer satisfaction. Their main aim is profit and monitory growth.
A study conducted by Christos Fotopoulos and Evagelos Psomas focused on identifying use of quality methods in ISO 9001: 2000 certified companies. Findings of the study said that most of the companies were using very easy and limited quality methods and techniques.
A research study was conducted by Merton R. Hubbard focused on accessing how statistically we can control the quality of various processes in food industry. The study was focused on food production and processing industry in United States. The Author evaluated various statistical methods to control quality. The author mentioned about Shewhart chart control techniques used in food production and processing industry as well as Dr. Deming techniques used to reduce the deviation and maintaining quality. Author also elaborated on the point of Dr. Deming that 85 percent of the quality problems causes due to faulty system and bad management. Only 15 percent problems causes due to human error. Author elaborated on various techniques used in food production and processing industry like total quality management, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, six sigma ISO 9000: 2000, Plan Do Check Act and others.
A research study was conducted by Beardsell and Dale to assess the total quality management relevancy in food supply and distribution industry. The study was conducted on two major companies in United Kingdom and United states. The study found that total quality management model is applicable in the food industry. Authors mentioned that in service industry, companies need to focus on customer satisfaction and follow the changing trends and requirements. Author found that all total quality management concepts, which are mainly related to customer satisfaction and process improvement, were given importance .
The quality model provided by Deming also received some criticism. Juran mentioned that Deming models are very much dependent on statistical methods while others said that his approach is not effective in case of new product and new market. It is also missing the space for creativity and innovation. Deming philosophy is based on Statistical process control but did not agree upon having quantitative goals for employees. Juran quantify all the processes in his theory. Crosby did not focus on employee motivation and feigenbaum focused on statistical techniques. Concepts proposed by Deming and Crosby focused on achieving zero defects whereas Juran focused on removing major problems. Juran also said that zero defect strategy would be very costly for organizations. Juran also gave the importance of quality department employees over top management whereas Deming and Crosby agree on giving priority to top management in establishing and managing quality.
As per Deming concepts, quality should be maintained and every task performed in the organization. The focus was on quality prevention then inspection. The concepts shifted the approach of management from one important department and activity to all the activities and how company is meeting the demand of various stakeholders. Deming provided effective way to manage quality however various organizations face lot of difficulties in implementing quality model in their organizations. Even various companies who have implemented the model are not able to achieve the significant results because they were unsuccessful in implementing the model properly.
The key tolls provided by Diming are TQM and PDCA. Organizations that have successfully implemented these tools are finding them very effective. Juran quality concepts like Pareto principle, Management theory and trilogy were used in various organizations. Juran mentioned that 80 percent problems occurred due to 20 percent of causes and one should identify those 20 percent causes and focus on to correct those causes. He also proposed the implementation of three quality process i. e. quality planning, control and improvement across the various departments in a company. In food industry various companies has been found adopting the strategy of establishing quality planning, control and improvements. Their focus is on time delivery to the customer and maintains customer expectations with quality. They also manage the record of complaints and analyze the common complaints which need urgent attention. Like Deming, Philip Crosby also has proposed 14 points for quality improvement. His quality strategy was focused on obtaining zero defects in products. He mentioned that quality is prime responsibility of management; employees should follow the strategy established by the management. Crosby mentioned that quality is a requirement and it is always recommended to adopt processes for quality improvement. As per author, quality prevention should always be preferred over inspection. Crosby mentioned various steps to maintain zero defects in the products and said that the quality improvement process should never end .
Deming and Crosby philosophy is focused on managing various process and employee involvement in bringing zero defects. Food industry is a service industry, employee motivation and involvement is much required for providing best services and to delight customer. Employees role in customer satisfaction is unavoidable thereby Deming and Crosby philosophy help employees up to great extent in maintain the quality. Although zero defect concept cannot be applied in the case of food industry because of the taste of individual and human involvement in preparation of food.
Armand Feigenbaum has given Total quality control theory. He integrated quality development, maintenance and improvements processes to deliver customer satisfaction at economical level. His focus was on managing quality and given emphasis on making it very much visible to the management so that the work involved in correcting the mistakes can be saved.
All four quality Gurus suggested the theories and models which many organizations found difficult to implement. The impact of any of the model can not be instance. All the models require time to show the results. For companies who can not shift from traditional style of working, it is very difficult to give priority to quality. Their main focus use to be on production and sales. All quality models required involvement from top management and commitment from employees. Experts focused on quality preventions and said that quality inspection can not lead to superior quality.
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