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“ Ethics Assignment a) Dr. Dworkin concludes that medical science should confine itself to the treatment of clinical depression instead of extending itself into the jurisdiction of everyday unhappiness. He notes that medical science helps people who are unhappy through clouding of their thoughts. He observes that people who are diagnosed of unhappiness gain “ inner peace” which comes at a great price in form of reduced consciousness (Dworkin, 47). b.) First Dworkin admits the dependence of a person on psychoactive drugs is to protect and shield oneself from the imponderable and unpredictability. He asserts that if happiness is serotonin and serotonin is happiness then it is true to say that these drugs guarantee happiness because one can take psychopathic drugs for many years. On the second result, it is observed that to declare happiness as a law of necessity allows science to emphasize the subcellular processes inside the brain at the expense of everything else. Science may say that it is the nature of man to require basic happiness but if the natural desire for happiness is linked to culture then the need for happiness begins and ends in nature. c.) On the account of third person, it is viewed that the good feeling which arises from the influence of mood-modifying drugs does not come about immediately. He explains that it takes several weeks and this kind of delayed effect is considered to be so predictable that the doctors warn their patients about it. The sow onset as explained causes the change in people’s attitudes to be barely perceptible, there is generally no minute or hour which marks the onset of their improved mood. On the account of first person, he claims to have observed a general lack of congruence between outside circumstances and a medicated patient’s good feeling and this observation is commensurate with the amazement expressed by these people. d.) Antidepressants contribute to irrational behavior. They may be in use in the hospitals for a good course but however, the number and rate of people abusing them is quite alarming. It would be important to control the production, supply and use of antidepressants in order to fully consider them as beneficial. e) I would disagree with Dworkin’s conclusion on matters of artificial happiness. This is because in some extreme cases, it is quite necessary. Artificial happiness has been of much help to many patients from previous years. The fact that in the present era people abuse the drugs should not at all justify opposition of the medication. Artificial happiness medication should be used prudently. Individuals have the choice of selecting what best suits them. Generalization of the problem is not right. f) Dworkin’s argument is quite relevant since it highlights our actions and allows you to be your own judge. In my own understanding I would consider the overall notion that artificial happiness comes along with many challenges and as a result artificial happiness should not be advised. Not only does it create some false sense of heightened emotions which are short-lived but in the end, it leaves one with complete emptiness. 2. a) Running of tests on animals in the lab should not be allowed at all. This is because these animals have characteristics which are in most ways similar to those of human beings. An example of this is the ability to feel pain. Animals just like human beings can feel pain. Despite the fact that animals have a tough skin which prevents the pain, the results are the same. An animal feels the pain just as a human being feels it regardless of the intensity. Some people have argued that these animals should be used for tests mainly because they lack reasoning capacities therefore there is no harm. These people need to ask themselves whether in the same scenario the animals were replaced with retarded people or even infants, would it be fine to perform the tests on them, this is because these retards and infants just like animals cannot be able to think and reason on their own? Evidently you will agree that it would not be right. Therefore, it should not be allowed at all. b.) Mora luck applies to the animal liberation movement in many ways. One of these ways is the fact that this movement only concentrates on defending the animals that are being mistreated in the laboratories but fail to consider the other animals back at home that are confined and mistreated for fun as well as food purposes. There are other animals which by virtue of their appearance have been lucky to be loved and treated well by humans but on the other hand there are those animals such as rats as well as pigs which due to their appearance and nature have been quite unfortunate to be used frequently for laboratory experiments. c.)Kant thinks that animals have the right to be treated as humans mainly on the basis of rationality. He argues that animals have the same capacities as humans although they are unable to apply intelligent reasoning. Kant compares the conscience of animals to that of an infant or a person who is mentally retarded. He goes ahead to propose that there should be equality on all animals since these animals stand at a disadvantage from the fact that when they are being captured, they are threatened with death and unlike human capture of slaves where you can explain to them that you mean no harm, in animals it does not apply hence they are terrified. 3. Authenticity is quite important in ensuring that one maintains his dignity in the society. The question is how do you become authentic? Well in order to become authentic the first thing that is important is to be able to account for your actions. Each and every action that you do, you should be able and ready to defend it as well as consider its effects not just to you alone but also to those around you. Authenticity requires that you act for the good interest and benefit of all. In order be authentic, you should be able to care about how your behavior affects those around you and at all times you should strive to improve the condition of yourself as well as the condition of your environment. An authentic person before making a decision he first of all considers the rationality of the matters surrounding the decision in order to develop a plan of action. Works Cited Dworkin, Ronald, and Justine Burley. Dworkin and his critics: with replies by Dworkin. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2006. Print.

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