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Epidemiology data search

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The Silent Attack of Osteoporosis
PubMed Health (2011) defined osteoporosis as the thinning of bone tissue and the loss of bone density over time. It is the most common type of bone disease. Osteoporosis occurs when the body fails to form enough new bone, when too much old bone is reabsorbed by the body, or both. Calcium and phosphate are two minerals that are essential for normal bone formation. Throughout the youth, a person’s body uses these minerals to produce bones. As a person ages, calcium and phosphate may be reabsorbed back into the body from the bones, which makes the bone tissue weaker. This can result in brittle, fragile bones that are more prone to fractures, even without injury. Usually, the loss occurs gradually over years. Many times, a person will have a fracture before becoming aware that the disease is present. By the time a fracture occurs, the disease is in its advanced stages and damage is severe. The causes of osteoporosis include being confined to bed, chronic rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, eating disorders, corticosteroid medications, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, amenorrhea, large consumption of alcohol and smoking.
Worldwide, an osteoporotic fracture is estimated to occur every three seconds and is estimated to affect 200 million women worldwide. Approximately one-tenth of women aged 60, one-fifth of women aged 70, two-fifths of women aged 80 and two-thirds of women aged 90 (International Osteoporosis Foundation, 2011).
Osteoporosis and low bone mass are currently estimated to be a major public health threat for almost 44 million U. S. women and men aged 50 and older. The 44 million people with either osteoporosis or low bone mass represent 55 percent of the people aged 50 and older in the United States. By the year 2010, it is estimated that more than 52 million women and men in this same age category will be affected and, if trends continue, the figure will climb to more than 61 million by 2020. In 2002, it is estimated that more than 10 million people already have osteoporosis. Approximately eighty percent of these people are women. This figure will rise to approximately 14 million by 2010 if additional efforts are not made to stem the disease, which may be largely prevented with lifestyle considerations and treatment when appropriate (National Osteoporosis Foundation, 2011).
According to the Center for Health Data and Research of Nevada Health State Division as printed in Healthy People Nevada (2010), osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures, especially of the hip, spine, and wrist. Of the 10 million Americans estimated to have osteoporosis, eight million are women and two million are men. The estimated national direct expenditure (hospitals and nursing homes) for osteoporotic and associated fractures was $17 billion in 2001. Nevada had 14. 7/10, 000 discharges from hospitals with osteoporosis while the United States baseline was 17. 7/10, 000 population.
The Clark County Health Status Report done on 2007 states that people with disabilities may experience lack of access to health services and medical care and may be at increased risk for various conditions. However, disability does not necessarily equate to poor health. About 18% of adults in the county reported they had some type of limitation. Disability was more prevalent among older adults. Based on aggregated county data, the percentage of county adults with limitations increased from 9. 2% among those aged 18-24 years to 27. 8% among those aged 55 years and older and that Clark County and the state had lower hospitalization rates for hip fractures among males, 65 years of age or older, than the Healthy People 2010 target.
References
Center for Health Data and Research. (2010). Healthy People Nevada 2010. Nevada State Health Division. Retrieved from http://health. nv. gov/PDFs/HealthyPeople2010/HP2003. pdf
Clark County Health Status Report. (2007) Disability. Retrieved from http://www. cchd. org/download/health-topics/hsr-v2. pdf
International osteoporosis foundation. (2011). Facts and statistics about osteoporosis and its impact. Retrieved from http://www. iofbonehealth. org/facts-and-statistics. html
National Osteoporosis Foundation. (2011). Prevalence Report. Retrieved from http://www. nof. org/advocacy/resources/prevalencereport
PubMed Health. (2011). Osteoporosis. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001400/

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