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Discovery of huttusha archeological site history essay

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Name: University: Hattusha archeological site is best known for the way it was organized in an urban setting including structures like temples, fortifications and royal residents, ornamented Lion’s Gate, Royal Gate, and rock art that is ensemble present in Yazilikaya. Huttusha archeological site began its influence during the time of civilization in the first and second millennia BC; the first towns were Anatolia and northern part of Syria. There is a comprehensive picture of a capital that is provided by the palace, temples, and trading quarters, giving testimony of Hittite civilization that existed before. The ruins that remained from the ancient Huttusha, village of Bogazkale and Hittite empire capital are all surrounded by high Anatolian plains two hundred kilometers east of Ankara. Huttusha city was first occupied by Pre Hittite population towards the end of third millennia, and allowed Assyrian traders to occupy the city. By that time the city was called Huttus even though it got destroyed in 1720 by Hittite sovereign known as Anitta. Vicissitudes occurred to the complex history rich event not sparing Huttusha; it became borne witness to monumental vestiges of ensembles. By the time the Hittites were arriving at the city, they were one great power and their ruler was Hatusili. During his rule, he managed to conquer Babylon and Troy; the empire also rivaled both Egyptians and Assyrians. The city was surrounded by agricultural fields and land for pasture and woods, meaning the inhabitants of Huttusha used wood in construction of most of their structures. Hattusha people had sufficient supply of wheat, lentis and barley since they practiced agricultural farming.

Discovery of Huttusha Archeological Site

Even though Huttusha was discovered by 1834, it had comprehensive excavation from 1906 after the discovery of a peace treaty between Pharaoh Ramses II and Huttushili III, this assisted in identifying Huttusha. German scholars had interests in the Hittite Empire resulting in excavations in Anatolia and other Hittite sites that were important in discovering Hittite history (Erciyas, 2005, p. 179). This made archeologists from Germany and Turkey have joint efforts in progressing the knowledge of Hitiite capital, hence Huttusha exploration served as a long-term archeological research that gave rise to various publications together with periodicals that were issued by Deutches Archaologisches institut. Hittite capital had spread over sloppy, uneven plateau that covered 2. 1 kilometers north-south and 1. 3 kilometers east-west. The city was bordered by double walls that formed a boundary covering eight kilometers. Kayali Bogaz was 1. 5 kilometers from Royal Gate at the East end, and it gave protection to the city. Nocropolis was on the north beyond the walls and it was decorated with bas-relief, one of the undisputed Hittite art masterpieces. The Hittite king chose the city to become its capital after realizing the Hittite language gained speakers over a period of time. Hittite’s records show Kaskas depredations against the empire together with Haiti’s invasions to the Hittite Empire (Mathews, 2004, p. 208). Kaskas invaded the city twice making the kings move their residence to new locations for security purposes. They moved to Sapinuwa when they were under king Tudhaliya, southwards during king Muwatalli to Tarhuntassa city. The royal seat was returned to Huttusa where the kings stayed until the decline of Huttite kingdom. Some of the most impressive remains of the walls lie on the east and south, and they are comprised of Hittite fortifications built on the underground passage way. An underground passage was to the northwest, near the present day Bozazkale village that occupies part of the site. The great temple is one astonishing monument found in Huttushi that was a dedication to Arinna, the god of storm and goddess of the Sun. This temple was surrounded by array buildings that included stores, besides this, the site had thousands of cuneiform tablets. The northern part of the temple had Assyrian settlement’s karum with their houses built in the central court yard. The south was the upper part of the city and one important element here was Buyukkale, a royal residence which was veritable place-citadel that perched on the main peak. Areas lying between region the western part of Lion’s Gate and eastern part of royal Gate have fortified peaks with preserved stretches of double walls that gave protection to the Hattusha residents and four temples that were in that region.

Importance of Hattusha Site

Huttusha site had significance to the Hittites until the time of its destruction and occupation by Galatians. Hatusha archeological site, even though small, has had several achievements especially in the 20th century when first excavations were done. One significant discovery at the Huttisha site is the cuneiform royal archives that contained ten thousands clay tablets. Among the ten thousand clays was one that had been inscribed with a peace treaty, the oldest ever found. There were formal contracts and correspondence, including legal codes, ceremonial procedures performed during Hittite cult, various oracular prophesy and ancient literature. Excavations made at Huttusha revealed the city’s measurement. It was located on a 450 acres land that had shrines and temples. The city revealed how Hittites exelled in sculptural work and the way they took great care when crafting guardian spirits such as lions and warriors, which were massive. Unearthing of this archeological site had great significance in understanding of Hittite era of civilization. Before, evidence of the Hittite was written in the Hebrew Bible and it considered them as Syrians, it was until Huttusha excavations done in Turkey that the enormous strength and sophistication of the Hittite Empire was revealed. The empire was both multi-lingual and multi-cultured politically that Anatolia and Levant life were controlled for over three centuries (Garcia and Belmonte, 2011, p. 462). The time it took for the Hittites to undergo civilization is also portrayed after the excavations done the Huttusha site. The southern entrance to Upper City through Lion’s Gate had two lions which were curved from arched stones. During the Hittite empire when the gates were in use, the stones were arched in parabola showing towers on both sides, hence giving a daunting image. Lions that were used in the gate were symbolic to the Hittite civilization; hence they appeared in many Hittite regions such as Aleppo and tell Atchana.

Significant Hittite Sites

Hattusa, a sprawling city was the beating heart of the entire empire and was hard for the archeologists to appreciate due to the fact that the foundation of the buildings in this city are the only structures that survived. There is much improvement in this situation since the introduction of other monuments such as Buyuk Mabet, the Sphinix Gate, and the tannel that was sliced through Buyuk Kale and the walls. Yazilikaya is another important site which was made by double gullying; its walls were made of carvings of various gods that existed in the Hittite pantheon. The images of the gods together with the scant remains of the temple dating back thirteenth century B. C. are a great attraction here. This site is believed to be Hittites venue for New Year’s celebration that was done during the spring season. Excavations at Alaca Hoyuk uncovered thirteen tombs that belonged to Hatti kings buried with impressive metal standards that were curved into shapes resembling the sun disc, stags and or bulls. It is believed that when the Hittites expelled Hattis, they rebuilt the town themselves by making the gates with stone sphinx monuments to guard it. The walls of important buildings were curved in a densely manner with various scenes of their daily life. Sapinuva is a Hittite site discovered in 2003 and it served as a capital for a short period of time. Sapinuva bears the remains of a palace that was made of stones interlocking each other and an impressive bazaar area that had a huge storage jug. Teshuba, the storm god, storms up at Sapinuva and it guarded the entrance to the bazaar. Kultepe was the first capital of Hittite Empire before it was moved to Hattusa and it yielded 4500 cuneiform tablets (Veenhof, 1998, p. 583). The walls of the capital had a statue of Karum which was an Asyrian trading colony which was abandoned way before Kanis lost favours. This area gives viewers a vast imagination of a huge palace conjured to the hub of the market. Ivriz site bears fine Hittite carvings of Tarhundas, a giant god, which dates back to 18th century. Tarhundas was curved handing grapes to King Warpalawas who was from Tuwanna town. Aslantepe was a palace home dating 4000 B. C and it has Hittite wall paintings and excavations at this site are still on the process. Yesemek is another site where there were half completed gateposts in the form of lions abandoned. The sculpture present is in the form of a lion or sphinx of a human head having fore legs (Schloen and Fink, 200, p. 218). This quarry was useful during the Hittite Empire and after they were overthrown by other empires. Karatepe site is a hillside that overlooks the lake and it has the remains of Aslantas, they were previously known as Azatiwadya. Karatepe town was founded by king Asatiwas and he engraved in stone carvings preserved in situ together with the statue of the storm god. Karatepe site has political realities even though there is limited archeological access to other parts related to the town (Collins, 2009, p. 1).
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