- Published: November 25, 2021
- Updated: November 25, 2021
- Language: English
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Teratogens are non-genetic factor present in the body of a human being that disrupt the normal fetal and embryonic differentiation and also the morphogenesis. Their effect are usually seen during birth and this children who are exposed to them in the utter will not be able to pass on the defect to their children.
The most common teratogens include the age of the mother. If the person giving birth is of old age, then the number of complications increases. Old mothers are prone to hypertension unlike the younger ones. The effects of the old age would lead low birth weights thus exposing them to the risk of fetal death . The other well-known common teratogen is the fetal alcohol syndrome[FAS] which is referred to as a group of mulfunction or abnormalities in babies given birth by mother who have been consuminng alcohol during their pregnancy period. It is one of the most common non-genetic factors leading to the mental retardation. The effect of this teratogen is that it causes abnormal walking, hearing loss, small head and small brain, poor eye-hand coordination and facial abnormalities.
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is theory covering the nature and human intelligence development. This theory is illustrated by various stages under which the human intelligence was growing level to another. One of the four major stages is the sensor motor stage, which is infant the first one. This stage ranges from birth to the gaining of language. Here one has no knowledge about the world since it is based on physical experiences. The person has to visit different parts of the world so as to gain this kind of knowledge therefore, the less one is exposed to the rest of the world, the little the experience and consequently the knowledge too. An infant advances from reflexive and instinctual actions as from the time of birth, to a new beginning of symbolic thought, as the stage comes to an end. Piaget further spitted this first stage into other six sub-stages. The first stage simple reflexes are from birth to the age of 6months. Here the child learns that he is not attached to his environment which exists despite that it is out of reach of his senses. The child has the senses; hearing, vision and motor skills. The infants’ behavior is confined to simple motor responses that are triggered by sensory stimuli. It is in this stage where object permanence is developed, which entail the child understanding objects are in existence even though he cannot see or hear them. The second stage is habits and primary circular reactions phase, where the child learns coordination reflexes and reproduction of an event that had initially occurred by chance. The third one is secondary circular reactions phase, where the infant turns to be more object-oriented. The fourth one is coordination of secondary circular reactions phase where the child learns the eye-hand coordination. The fifth stage is the tertiary circular reactions where the child wants to experiment on new behavior. The last stage is the internalization of schemes where the child has an insight or creativity.
Absentminded refers to that situation where a person reveals a forgetful or inattentive behavior. This is commonly caused by paying less attention, any interruption of attention from an object over which the focus is laid on, either by thoughts or surrounding events, or also by intense attention to a particular single object thus ignoring others.
Erikson’s argument under conflicts of early adulthood is based on intimacy and isolation. Erikson argued that it was necessary that people built up close and committed relationships among them. Failure to this resulted to loneliness and isolation. If one had separated from his/her partner, then isolation took place thus creating a lot of enemity and conflict between the particular individuals under disagreement.