Essay, 22 pages (5000 words)

Consumer buying patterns beyond demographics marketing essay

The study is an evaluation and discussion on the pitfalls of Sitaram textile Limited due to their mismanagement of weaving in a highly competitive business situation. The mill is owned by the state. It has a product line of cotton fabric. Its USP was the integrated textile mill concept. Severe price competition from the unorganised powerloom sector restricted its operations to do minimal activities in the cycle like yarning and reeling rest was done with powerloom units. Also the selective need from large players like only one type of fabric, changes in the environment resulted in the adverse performance of the company. New channel arrangements, evolving consumer tastes and an increase in completion are the noticeable changes of the environment. The company hence could not make use of its capacity to the fullest which affected its profitability. As a improvement step, company has planned for modernising the industry and enter into the blended fabric market. Even though this case study focuses only on one company it is not a standalone issue. The entrance of powerloom has created a major loss to traditional handloom sector and no proper support from government has resulted great lossPromotion can categorized as mainly personal selling and mass marketing. The paper analysis the handloom sector of Orissa with the help of a model called multi criteria promotional model in TV channels through popular programmes. The FGP model created by Tsai et al along with the multi criteria model is used to propose an efficient strategy to the dying cluster of Orissa (Nuapatna). This industry caters to Bop. The uses and range of benefits which can be used is not conveyed properly without any barrier of the culture due all such reasons a proper promotional strategy is required. The main concern which is addressed is that the lack of knowledge on which media is to select these addresses as media selection problem (MCDM). With FGO model a fuzzy goal is selected than an objective function. Give a scope to translate the DM of each criterion into high satisfaction and low satisfaction. The main goal is to maximize the overall satisfaction in the decision system so that cach criterian can achieve in a compromise level in the competitive environment. These models give greater solution that analytics model. Other problems like unavailability of the data, unequal importance for objective /goals and other related issue can solved with this model. Also business models for profit and non profit sectors cannot be shown with is models since computer analysis is not possibleThis study was conducted to identify the impressions of fabrics presented in three different media including in-person fabric presentation, flat digital photographs, and draped digital photographs over a dress form, and to compare the differences in the responses to them. Ten fabric samples were viewed by sixty-seven college students. They were asked to note their impressions of fabrics through open-ended questions at the beginning and end of the semester, rotating the presentation medium. Responses fell into serviceability categories and patterns emerged that show differences given the presentation medium. The use of technology in apparel and textile sectors has been increasing in both academia and the textile and apparel industry, allowing less face-to-face interaction to teach, sell, and present the product. ” Attributes of textile products can be categorized into 1) objective measurement under controlled laboratory settings and 2) subjective evaluations from an observer. Mechanical properties such as durability are usually measured by objective methods using specific instruments based on developed testing methods such as ASTM standards (American Society for Testing and Materials) and ISO standards (International Organization for Standardization). Visual and tactile properties are mainly evaluated through the feedback of an observer. Subjective criteria are a result of many complex factors including the consumer’s underlying values and attitudes, stored information and experience, and various psychological, sociological, and economic influences. “(Jenkins & Dickey, 1976). ” In the study conducted by Eckman et al. (1990), he found across 21 studies, 35 extrinsic and 52 intrinsic characteristics influenced consumers’ motivation to purchase. Extrinsic characteristics are properties that when altered do not change the physical product (e. g., price), but may change viewer perception of the product. Intrinsic characteristics are properties that when altered change the physical product (e. g. color), and may also change the viewer perception to the product. The author identified four categories of product characteristics from a review of literature including 1) product composition, 2) performance, 3) quality, and 4) sex appropriateness.” ” In a study conducted By Kadolph 2007 he identified serviceability characteristics and fabric properties. Like Durability – abression, resistance, flexibility, tenacity, elongation. Comfort Safety – Absorbency, heat or thermal retention, heat sensitivity, density or specific gravity. Appearance-retention properties – Resiliency, dimensional stability, shrinkage resistance, elasticity or elastic recovery.” This study has tried to analyze the purchase and consumption behaviors in daily life often which are repetitive and performed in customary places, leading consumers to develop habits. When habits have formed, environmental cues can activate the practiced responses in the absence of conscious decision making. Methodology was to identify the pattern and hence took a gradual process, a two 7-day diary studies in which participants daily tracked the frequency with which they purchased fast food and watched television news. The second study also assessed daily frequency of riding the bus. several different aspects of the performance Circumstances that might cue habit performance including the physical location, participants’ mood, and the time of day, and the social setting was also taken into consideration. Study was understand the fact that consumption as reflecting habit strength—that is, when people have repeated a behavior frequently in the past in particular circumstances, associations form in memory between the action and stable features of performance contexts such that behavior comes to be cued by those context features. As a result, although intentions and behavior were generally compatible for the correspondents who possessed strong habits, intentions under predicted future behavior. These participantsContinued to repeat their past behavior despite holding intentions that did not to the extent that repetition in contiguity with contexts is characteristic of consumer behavior, habits potentially are important to understanding how consumers function in the marketplace. Although this research did not investigate habitual purchase of specific brands, this approach could be extended to address repeated brand choice. This extension could provide insight into phenomena such as spurious loyalty in which a relatively unfavourable attitude is accompanied by high repeat patronage of a brand6.(Astrid G., 2009)The study focused on impulsive purchase experiences. Feelings, considerations and ratings of purchase impulsiveness were measured with respect to a recent purchase by means of interviews immediately after the purchase in the shopping environmentand through shopping diaries. The feeling and considerations was hence identified i. e. 17 feelings (i. e. enthusiastic, attracted, interested, happy, need, like, pleased, regret, relieved, proud, wanting, urge, excited, perfect, in love, contented, nothing special) and eight considerations (i. e. in fashion, unique, quality, price, beauty, special, on sale, practicality) were distinguished. The analysis was conducted by multidimensional scaling and correlation test was conducted between feeling and considerations and impulsiveness of the purchase. The MDS analyses gave insight into consumers’ perceptual space in terms of the feelings and considerations that accompanied their purchases. By relating these perceptions to individual measures of impulse-buying tendency, a marked contrast appeared between consumers with low versus high impulse-buying tendency. Research gap of the study was that t the subjective rating of impulsiveness and purchase impulsiveness measures were taken simultaneously. There was a strong correlation between these two measures suggests that these constructs apparently were difficult to distinguish for the participants. The milestone this study has proved is that when previous studies and literature on impulse buying focused almost exclusively on the role of affective factors in the shopping experience, the results in the present studies indicated that cognitive factors play a role that is just as important. Hedonistic considerations of the customers seem to provide a cognitive aspect that drives them to purchase on impulse. 7.(Ener, 2011)Demographic and structural changes in households have changed the roles of children in family purchasing activities, increasing both their participation in family decision making and their purchasing power. Amount of influence children have on expenses and decision making varies according to the product groups and the stages of decision making. Although children actively influence the idea of purchasing and gathering information on some products, in other product categories children also influence the purchase decisions (Kaur & Singh, 2006). the main result was that to identify trends, For general issues related to purchases, adolescents stated the areas that they influenced most were suggesting brands, shopping with parents, drawing attention to new products, and suggesting stores. The area that they influenced the least was suggesting price. Adolescents are more likely to influence family decisions when they have deep involvement with a product category (Shoham & Dalakas, 2003). There have been total shift in decision making process This difference between the results of earlier studies and those completed more recently implies that technological developments are influencing purchasing behavior as are changes in family structure (e. g., the proliferation of computer and Internet use, the increase in the education levels of parents, and the increase in the number of working mothers giving more purchasing responsibility to children because the mothers have limited time to shop). Results from these studies have also suggested that children have begun to influence the purchase of products that are not for their use. 8.(Natalia Maehle, 2011)This study helps us to understand how consumers form their perceptions of the different dimensions of brand personality identified in Aaker’s scale (sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness), and what product or brand characteristics influence these perceptions. Sixty-six interviews were conducted with graduate students, who were asked to discuss which brands reflected the specific dimensions of brand personality in Aaker’s scale. specific brand personality dimensions are associated with particular product categories. However, brands mentioned as strong on respective personality dimensions share commonalities beyond just a product category. For instance, sincere brands share family-related associations and high morals, exciting brands offer consumers the opportunity to experience exciting feelings and are related to special ‘ exciting’ occasions, competent brands are mostly associated with expertise and quality, and sophisticated brands are usually of feminine nature, whereas rugged brands are of masculine nature. Moreover, we find that brands which consumers perceive as lacking on a particular personality dimension also share common attributes. This study point out those consumers may associate particular brand personality dimensions with specific product categories, as well as with specific brands. As such, brand managers may need to begin their initial strategic decisions regarding the crafting of personality characteristics for brands at a higher level of abstraction. 9.(Rituparna basu. kalyan Sengupta)As organized retail market in India still evolves with notable dominance in categories like apparel, the paper aims at exploring the formative attitude of the Indian apparel shoppers with respect to the single and multi-brand store format options. Demographic profiles are found to influence format preferences. The study reveals that the urban Indian middle class, with leisure-oriented shopping motive, desire multibrand stores to satisfy their shop-and-fun needs. Time-constrained urban female population along with senior citizens prefer single brand formats to suit their objective driven shopping needs. The articulation of the format perception of the Indian apparel shoppers not only aids the existing and prospective retailers in formulating sustainable formats, but also serves as a foundation for a deeper probe into the retail consumer behavior research domain specific to emerging markets. An effective format results from the rightful mix of the retailer controlled variables ike assortment, price, transactional convenience and the overall retail experience. exploratory study based on items relating to attitudinal preference of apparel customers with respect to determinants of store format choice were conducted . Items indicating preferences towards single and multi-brand stores with variables like variety, quality of products, service, ambience, fashion and designs, sales staff behaviors were used. It is well argued that in spite of selling the same product categories, different formats appeal to different mindsets and therefore coexist in sustainable terms. Yet from an emerging market perspective, it seems that the Indian customers are yet to form a concrete idea and perception towards single brand stores, as these are relatively new and low in number. Single brand stores who draw their exclusive identity from the product brand itself will develop stronger foothold in the Indian market with growing consciousness and sensitivity around branded apparels amongst the Indian consumers. Exclusive brand stores like Biba, Fab India, speciality saree shops, etc., are here to attract the fashion-conscious, novelty-seeking urban Indian female. 10.(Lanza)This study explores the influences of brand satisfaction and brand commitment on loyalty and repurchase intentions for Toyota and Chevrolet brand owners within the U. S. This study is significant as the findings provide a model on which to base relationship-marketing strategies leading to brand satisfaction and brand advocacy intentions. This research reveals the constructs of brand satisfaction and a correlation between brand satisfaction, brand commitment, brand loyalty, and repurchase intentions. It is increasing understood that to succeed, the reasons influencing brand satisfaction, brand perceptions and the process through which customers become loyal to an automotive brand must be examined and understood if the brand is to have long term success. The idea of marketing means to focus an organization’s efforts at satisfying customers at a profit. Although customer satisfaction has long been a central goal of marketing professionals (Beverland, Napoli, & Yakimova, 2007), brand satisfaction has emerged as a strategic imperative and a clear corporate objective. Brand loyalty is identified as a complex mixture of attitudinal and behavioural elements (Kotler & Armstrong, 2004). The study was a nonexperimental, quantitative study. The dependent variablesor those influenced by brand satisfaction and commitment in the study, were therepurchase decision, and brand advocacy intentions. The independent variables influencing the outcome of the dependent variables included perceived brand quality, equity and value, brand satisfaction, continuance brand commitment, and affective brand commitment. Brand loyalty appears to be the important measure for a brand’s long-term financial success and the research explains correlations between brand satisfaction, brand loyalty, and the firm’s profitability. 11.(Rathnayake, 2011)The study was conducted to learn the impact of gender and education on fashion consciousness of young fashion consumers. A survey design was used to collect the data and 215 youngsters below 25 years of age were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to examine the fashion consciousness of respondents. Three factors of fashion consciousness were suggested by exploratory factor analysis procedure, and they were established for further analysis based on the results of confirmatory factor analysis. The study tested three hypotheses to examine the degree of fashion consciousness and the impact of gender and education on fashion consciousness. ” Clothing and fashion are unique dimensions of behaviour, and are the ways though which consumers express their identity. Clothing is considered to be a universal tool of aesthetic self-management (Cash, 1990).” The study highlighted the reality that although consumers’ attitudes toward domestic-made products are positive, these attitudes may have little influence on behaviour at the point of purchase. Accordingly, the fashion consciousness of consumers in developing countries was centred on their degree of involvement with the styles or fashion of clothing coming from Western countries. The study reveals that fashion consciousness is context-dependent and that gender, education and urban-rural differences are important factors in a young consumer’s fashion consciousness. Accordingly, fashion consciousness is externally influenced and the investigation of fashion consciousness in developing countries should be accompanied with a careful interpretation of the socioeconomic and cultural surroundings of consumers. This study is quite significant for India since India and Sri Lanka has many cultural similarities. 12.(Nature Publishing Group, Nature, 2002)Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a ‘ super-fibre’. Silkworm silk is traditionally obtained from a natural cocoon that is spun by the moving silkworm, which accelerates and decelerates its head in arcs that are attached at points that correspond to each change of direction6. We find that artificial reeling of silk from immobilized silkworms under steady and controlled conditions produces fibres that are superior to naturally spun ones. The silkworm, like the spider, produces stronger, more brittle fibres at faster spinning speeds, whereas slower speeds lead to weaker, more extensible fibres. Main difference between silkworm and spider silk may be linked to specific differences in the composition of the principal silk molecules2, as well as to their arrangement during and after spinning. Depending on reeling speed, Bombyx silk is either strong or stretchable, whereas spider dragline silk typically combines the two at the speeds that are characteristic of web construction (10–20 mm s). The major findings of this study indicate that the mechanical properties of Bombyx silk, like those of spider silk, depend crucially on spinning conditions — silkworm silks can be made stronger, stiffer and more extensible simply by adjusting the harvesting parameters. If we could reel silk straight from the silkworm, as from spiders, or if larvae could be bred to spin their cocoons faster and more evenly (with pre-treatment washing appropriately modified), then the silkworm would produce fibres that might well give natural and artificially spun spider silks genetically modified or not a good run for their money. 13.(India)Textile industry is the second most important sector after agriculture. The No. 1 exporter of textiles, China, has a share of more than 10 per cent followed by Korea with 8. 1 per cent; India’s hovers at 3. 5-4 per cent. The industry is composed of handlooms, powerlooms and mills. While the mill sector is well-organised and modern, the same cannot be said of the powerloom and handloom segments. The textile industry is undergoing a major reorientation towards non-clothing applications of textiles, known as technical textiles, which are growing roughly at twice rate of textiles for clothing applications and now account for more than half of total textile production. India’s weaving and knitting sector is highly fragmented, small-scale, and labour-intensive. The woven fabric production industry can be divided into three sectors: powerloom, handloom and mill sector. The export basket consists of wide range of items containing cotton yarn and fabrics, man-made yarn and fabrics, wool and silk fabrics, made-ups and variety of garments. India’s textile products, including handlooms and handicrafts, are exported to more than hundred countries. NCDEX has launched its silk contract (raw silk and cocoon). With this launch, the total number of products offered by NCDEX goes up to 27. The launch of the silk contract will offer the entire suite of fibres to the entire value chain ranging from farmers to textile mills. With the objective of protecting the interests of those affected by the WTO agreements and globalisation process, Government of India jointly with NCDEX has adopted a policy of encouraging future contracts of silk. India is the second largest producer of silk in the world, contributing about 18 per cent to global production. The value of silk fabrics produced in India in 2002-2003 was over US$ 1. 78 billion. India also exported over US$ 190 million of silk goods and over US$ 357 million of silk yarn, fabrics and made ups. Growing demand for traditional silk fabrics and exports of handloom products has spurred growth in silk demand. 14.(Bandyopadhyaya, 2005)Small brands face a situation called Double Jeopardy(DJ) frequency of purchase is less and lower buyers this may be because of less consumer exposures and heterogeneity in popularity. Earlier study proves that differences in consumer responses may lead to DJ. While in other study , the concept mainly talk about transaction specific marketing mix and size of the market this study also focus on the difference between the segments. To measure the brand loyalty of each consumer purchase penetration and purchase frequency s been analysed. Lower contribution and the inability of consumers to adequately capitalize on transaction specific antecedents to complement the effect of long term attitudes in purchase behaviour. in a DJ situation best option for small brand is to concentrate on niche segment than scarring the resources across scattered promotion and distribution strategies. The main gap of the study is that is uses a self report on dichotomous measure of media exposure and price promotion and a single product category was only analyzed. 15.(al, 2011)In this article an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based model to assess customer loyalty scores for commodity brands is been proposed. also a methodology using Structural Equation Modeling to systematically collect data from customers and suitably incorporate it into AHP for computing the loyalty scores is been proposed. The study was done for commodity products. On the basis of the data we observe that the commodity brand, which has the highest loyalty score, is able to provide better perception of offerings in those constructs considered important by the customers. On the other hand, the weakest brand has been unnecessarily concentrating on price worthiness factors like lower price, higher discounts and long credit period. As per this study this construct is viewed relatively less important by the customers. Perhaps, customers perceive it as a lower quality product owing to this over focus on this construct. Branding involves a multidimensional construct Convincing the customers provides the marketer an opportunity to gain customer loyalty. Brand loyalty might be viewed as a special case of relationship marketing where the customer has significant psychological attachment to the brand consumed. Mainly 9 constructs has been identified by which loyalty can be measure these include Involvement, Functional Value, Emotional Value, Price Worthiness, Social Value, BrandTrust, Customer Satisfaction, Commitment and Repeat Purchase Behavior. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a mathematical decision making technique that allows consideration of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of decisions (Satty 2008 – 2009, Forman and Gass 2001 – 2007). The proposed methodology paves the way to mitigate the uncertainties in developing and implementing Suitable strategies to build a loyal customer base for commodities. 16.(Lau, 1999)Brands are important in the consumer market. They act as the interface between the company and the consumers. Study focuses on the significance of Trust as the most important facet of brand loyalty. Trust includes consumer brand characteristics and company characteristics. Brand loyalty brings benefits to the company like more frequency and the consumer will act as the ambassador for the company. Brand characteristics (brand predictability, competence and reputation), company characteristics (Trust in company, company reputation, company perceived motives and company integrity) and consumer brand characteristics (similarity between self concept and brand personality, brand liking, brand experience, brand satisfaction and support) lead to trust in a brand which will lead to brand loyalty. Pearson correlation and regression analysis was conducted between the variables. Among these variables brand predictability, brand competence and brand reputation are the most important variables for trust followed by brand liking and trust in the company. The study needs to be done step by step and hence validation of the test is necessary. 17.(Morgan, 2000)The most abused word in marketing concept is equity and loyalty. Equity means net worth and in a consumer perspective as big brand (pervasiveness), premium quality, differentiated, identity, affinity and loyalty. Same way loyalty is interpreted in different ways like ‘ loyalty is what I do’, ‘ loyalty is what I feel’. to measure equity, equity engine model(affinity, identification, approval) is used and compared on the basis of sustainable price premium, a conjoint analysis is done (mainly for brand price tradeoffs)the main two classes of equity is 1. Functionality and performance. 2. Emotional and intangible issues. Loyalty speaks about relative appeal than absolute appeal. The main concept is understand the customer that is rational economic man, among main factors of loyalty utility gap between the competing brands are very important. Loyalty driver model is very important in the new scenario. The 4 main categories are early leavers, committed volunteers, and unhappy prisoners and secure brand fans. Brand loyalty and switching depends on effort required to switch, Availability of difficulty in switching, financial implications, compatibility with prior choices and ancillary benefits18.(Maria Holmlund, 2011)This study offers useful suggestions to clothing designers, manufacturers, retailers, and marketers on how to target mature women more effectively. The paper opens up a hitherto neglected research topic by presenting empirical findings and a model specifically developed based on mature women’s garment buying processes. Despite mature consumers’ monetary power and their growing share of many product markets, research especially on mature women’s buying behaviour and attitudes is still scarce. The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse mature women’s buying of clothes. The interpretation was made from the observations made in a department store and of interviews with a sample of ten Finnish women aged 50 to 63 years. The study yielded empirically grounded elements of mature women’s buying processes: the need for clothing, fissionability, clothing fit preferences, brand preferences, retailer preferences, shopping style, and price. Based on an analysis of the findings a new model of mature women’s buying patterns is developed . the main components of the models are, environment, peer groups, individual characteristics preference (shopping style, retailer preference, clothing fit preferences), individual fissionability( wearing and combining apparel,, building need and awareness, searching and fitting, evaluating and actual purchase and wearing and combining apparel). The present idealisation of slimness and youthhas had an influence also on mature women’s clothing choices. They want to look smaller and slimmer and therefore prefer flattering styles as well as details and cuts that do not make them look older and fatter. Mature women prefer comfortable clothes which combine the properties of elastic fabrics, soft qualities and most importantly good fit. However, mature women expect the fabrics to be practical as well as easy to care for and this sets requirements on both quality and design. Mature women want to buy long-lasting designs and good qualitybeyond the price. Mature women consider the intrinsic value of the clothes they wear. They wish to and want to have a need to purchase new clothes. Therefore, it is essential to stress the notion of value when marketing to mature women. Longevity, value for money, and hard-wearing are considered to be anathema to fashion, which depends on transience.(Consumer buying patterns: beyond demographics, 1995)Consumers have different buyer strategies which fit into four groups, i. e. long loyals, Rotators, price drivens and light users. Demographics can create a mass buying difference. long loyals buy the same product year after year , they will never substitute and hence ready to wait or make an extra effort , they are not price sensitive. Rotators shift among a limited set of brand in a particular category, they take turns for each brand. Price driven are emotionally driven for price saving strategies, they look for coupons or deal. There are two types’ price driven and product driven. And in light user category it means limited category interaction, makes few purchases in a category and hence can’t draw a purchase pattern. Retailers will have a tough time, light users and for price driven retailers have to keep their eyes open knowing about what is the deal competitors are making. 20.(Mihic)Opinions, attitudes and behavior of others are elements that can considerably affect the decision-making process and consumer choice decisions. Marketers and advertisers have longthe influence of reference groups on consumers’ decision. Reference groups are persons, groups and institutions whom one looks to for guidance for one’s own behavior and values, and whose opinion about oneself is valued (Widing et al. 2003). Several researchers have also noted that reference group influence is affected by the type of product or situation studied. The main focus of this study was find out whether the individuals’ susceptibility to reference group influence (informational, utilitarian and value expressive) could serve as the basis for market segmentation. The main variables which were used are Demographic variables included in the analysis are sex, age, education, household income and marital status. Social comparison variables include two different processes of reference group comparison: reflected appraisal and comparative appraisal. Personality variables include individualistic orientation and global self esteem. ” mature” consumers are more susceptible to the influence of reference groups, which in terms of informative influence corresponds to the results of previous research (e. g. Phillips and Sternthal 1977).


(Sancheti)Clothing purchases garner a major portion of tweens’ spendable income. How tweens relate to clothing is influenced by several factors. Use of dress is one of the ways to secure a place in a social group, clothing can help to ratify the self and improve self-esteem. Low self-concept is found to be related to high perceived clothing deprivation (Francis, 1992) this research created a conceptual framework to examine factors affecting tween clothing behavior and self concepts. Factors of interest were social (peer and family influence), psychological (self-esteem, body image, body dissatisfaction and features of attractiveness), environmental (media exposure), physical (age and body size), and clothing attributes. It was proposed that these factors affect both self-perception and clothing behavior. Mothers’ behavior impacted their daughters’ self perceptions and influenced their behavior as consumers. Peer influence increased with age, significantly for older girls’ buying and wearing decisions. 22(The Influence of loyalty programme membership on customer purchase behaviour, 2008)The study contributes to more ” generalisable” knowledge by investigating marketwide scanner panel data about competitive purchasing, loyalty programmes and store locations. Retailers can use the findings in their attempts to segment their target market, which enables them to allocate their marketing expenditures more effectively. In the retailing sector, consumers typically patronize multiple outlets, which leave outlets striving to earn a greater portion of consumer expenditures. The study helps to improve theoretical and empirical knowledge about the impact of retailing loyalty programmes on customer purchasing behaviour. The effects of two loyalty programmes on customer behaviour are studied through marketwide panel data on supermarket purchases due to scarce empirical evidence and ambiguity in the results, supplementary investigations that take such limits into account clearly are necessary. The study investigates the extent to which loyalty card programmes offered by primary grocery stores influence customer purchase behaviour in a non-contractual retailing context and thereby contributes to more ” generalisable” knowledge by investigating marketwide scanner panel data about competitive purchasing, loyalty programmes and store locations. first, elaborate on the framework and discuss previous research. Second, description of the method, including the research setting and data collection. Third, description analysis and results. loyalty programmes allow for the creation of a relationship that is based on interactivity and individualisation, assuming they are accompanied by the personalisation techniques of direct marketing, and communication. In turn, they become strategic tools for managing customer relationships and heterogeneity. The study focus on store-level variables, but loyalty programmes also could affect total category expenditures. Kopalle and Neslin (2003) find that the elasticity of category demand can drive the success of loyalty programmes, and this topic is definitely worth further empirical study. The study also fails to integrate financial data, though the success of a loyalty programme should be measured on the basis of its financial contribution (Kopalle and Neslin, 2003). 23(Xuemei Bian)This research investigates counterfeit branded products( CBP) not only as a product but, more importantly, also as a brand – a counterfeit brand. The results of this study hold important implications for both practitioners and academics. They help to alert practitioners to the factors that truly affect consumer proneness of CBPs, for example, brand personality. For academics, they demonstrate that brand influence should not be further ignored in the study of consumer behaviour in relation to CBPs. Counterfeiting has become a significant economic phenomenon. Increased demand for counterfeit branded products (CBPs) makes the study of determinants of consumers CBPs purchase behaviour more worthwhile than ever before. Existing studies have largely neglected brand influence on consumer purchase behaviour of CBPs. This research seeks to examine the impact of perceived brand image, direct and indirect effects (mediator and moderator effects) of product involvement and product knowledge on consumer purchase intention of counterfeits in the context of non-deceptive counterfeiting. The main variables studied include product involvement, product knowledge, and brand image. The major objective of this study is to investigate direct relations between the three most exploratory constructs of consumer behavior (product involvement, product knowledge and brand image) and purchase intention in the context of non-deceptive counterfeiting. ” High level of disposability” and ” only a fraction of the price of the original luxury branded product” are two kinds of characteristic possessed by the counterfeits only, which the BPs cannot ever achieve. so BP should integrate anti-counterfeiting campaigns with a Corporate Social Responsibility Scheme. The image that needs to be established for the BPs should be ” genuine”, ” green” and ” long-lasting”. 24(Ben M Enis)Study proves that analysis of market segments on the basis of age, sex, georgraphy and income level cannot help the management in creating proper strategy. tho analyse the consumer must be ready to give information that means they must feasible, meaningful and predictable. Store loyalty refers to consumer’s inclination for a particular store for a particular period. This consumer patronage gives them revenue; store loyalty is firm’s objective. Loyalty was measured using the amount of budget allocated to spend on a particular shop, number of times the shop is visited and number of time shop is been switched. The main determinants of store loyalty are: environmental conditions, consumer socio economic characteristics and consumer psychological characteristics. Correlation analysis was conducted between these variables. Selection of a market segment is based on the number of loyal customers; the companys should try to create convenience store loyalty. 25(Janakiraman, 2011)This article gives a glimpse Indian Textile industry starting from its present, past and future. It is an independent industry starting from raw material procurement to final production with value-addition at every step of the way. Forming 14 percent of the total industrial output, the textile sector stands big in the Indian industrial scenario and is fast-growing. Indian fabric is in great demand in foreign shores owing to its ethnicity, rich textures, handwork and earthly colours. The textile industry is comprised of various segments, namely, readymade garments, cotton textiles including handlooms, man-made textiles, silk textiles, woolen textiles, carpets and other handicrafts, coir and jute. India is the second largest producer of silk and accounts for about 18% of the total world raw silk production. India produces all four varieties of silk, namely, Mulberry, Eri, Tasar and Muga. Sericulture is a cottage industry that is practiced in about 54 thousand villages across India. Nearly six million people are employed in this sector especially in rural areas. The remarkable Indian silk is varied in form, colours, design, weaves and is high in quality. Kancheepuram silk sarees are characterized by golden jari buttas, woven into the saree in unique patterns. Gujarat and Rajasthan are known for Bandhni silk produced through an ancient method called ” bandhej” or tie dying of the cloth. Ikkat silk, known as patola in Orissa, also involves the same technique but is applied to the yarn before weaving. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Orissa produce this silk. Varanasi or Benaras in Uttar Pradesh is famous for the Benaras silk fabric woven to create a raised effect (brocade) depicting floral motifs. The global textiles and clothing industry is earmarked to grow to USD 700 billion by 2012. After the expiry of the MFA, or the Multi-Fibre Arrangement, which governed the textile trade between nations, quota-free trading started which resulted in changes in the apparel and textile trade, such as the shifting of supply bases, reduction in sourcing prices and a re-orientation of the buyer-supplier relationship.

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