The Integration of Adult Nursing Practice
Slide One – Introduction and aims of the presentation
Slide Two – Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidneys – Structure Slide Three – Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidneys – Nephron Slide Three – Pathophysiological changes
Slide Four – Signs and Symptoms
Slide Five – Causes and Factors
Slide Six – Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease
Slide Severn – Interventions
Slide Eight – Implications of Nursing Care
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS
• This presentation will be approximately 10 minutes long. However, this is a limitation as I was unable to discuss chronic kidney disease in great details
• To discuss the normal anatomy and physiology of the kidneys
• To explore the pathophysiological changes in the kidneys
• The signs and symptoms that occur and the changes to be expected
• To outline diagnosis and interventions
• To discuss what are the implications for the nursing care of a person with the condition
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF
FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEYS
• CONTROLS FLUID LEVEL
• REGUALTES ACID BASED
• REMOVAL OF TOXINS AND
• REGUALTES BLOOD
PRESSURE AND RENIN
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF
http://www. healthline. com/vpvideo/kidney-physiology
CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
• Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is long-standing, progressive deterioration of renal function. Function is measured using THE GLOMERULUS FILTRATION RATE (GFR). These are the stages of CKD;
Mildly reduced kidney function, test results point to some kidney damage
Moderately reduced kidney function
Severely reduced kidney function
• Decreased urination
• Blood or protein in the urine
• Cloudy urine
• Shortness of breath
• Loss of appetite/weight loss
• Nausea and vomiting
• Muscle cramping
• High blood pressure
• Fluid retention
• Lower Back Pain
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS
• The Two main causes are:
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys as the force of blood flow weakens the kidneys blood vessels therefore this can reduce the kidneys ability to function properly.
Consistently high blood sugar levels can cause pressure on the GFR causing them to leak protein.
Factors that may increase your risk of chronic kidney disease include: Diabetes
High blood pressure
Being African-American, Native American or Asian-American
Family history of kidney disease
Age 65 or older
DIAGNOSIS OF CKD
To determine chronic kidney disease there are tests and procedures that can be done.
INTERVENTIONS AND TREATMENT
Depending on your stage of Chronic Kidney Disease depends on the level of intervention and treatment required.
• Interventions for stage one, two and three of chronic kidney disease
• Proteinuria Screening
• Blood Pressure Screening
• Smoking Cessation
• Glycaemic Control
Treatment for Stages four and Five
Physical patients with
Management of pain
• Theaidentist (2015) Kidney location in human. Available from: bodyhttp://www. thaidentist. org/kidneys-location-inhuman-body/ [Accessed 22/01/2015] • Unknown (2015) Kidney. Available from: http://www. middletownurology. com/kidney-stones [Accessed 22/01/2015] • Unknown (2015) http://www. umich. edu/~elements/web_mod/viper/kidney_function. htm [Accessed 22/01/2015] • Healthline (2015) Kidney Video. Available from: http://www. healthline. com/vpvideo/kidney-physiology [Accessed 22/01/2015]
• Kidney Health (2015) Signs and Symptoms. Available from: http:// www. kidney. org. au/KidneyDisease/RiskFactorsandSymptoms/tabid/819/Default. aspx [Accessed 22/01/2015] • Diabetes (2014) Kidney Disease (Nephropathy). Available from: http:// www. diabetes. org/living-with-diabetes/complications/kidney-disease-nephropathy. html [Accessed 22/01/2015]
• National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information (2014) High blood pressure and kidneys. Available from: http ://kidney. niddk. nih. gov/KUDiseases/pubs/highblood/ [Accessed 22/01/2015] • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (2015) Chronic Kidney Disease. Available from: http://
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