Essay, 4 pages (950 words)

Behavioral learning theory

What is learning? occurs when experience causes a change in a person’s knowledge or behavior. What doesn’t learning include? Maturation ONBEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder NowBehavior theorists emphasize the role of _______ and _____ on observable responses-Environmental Stimuli
-FocusContiguity LearningWhenever two or more sensations occur together often enough, they will become associatedClassical ConditioningFocuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such as fear, increased muscle tension, salivation, or sweating_______ is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological responseNatural StimulusEventually, neutral stimulus becomes a ________ leading to a _________.-Conditioned stimulus
-Conditioned responseWhat is an example of classical conditioning?-Pavlov’s dogs
-Altoid example from the OfficeExamples of contiguity learning-OH
-Red light
-Golden archesUnconditioned stimulus (US)-Stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response
-” Do you want an altoid?” Unconditioned response (UR)-Naturally occurring or automatic emotional or physiological response
-Test mouth, yes, put out handConditioned stimulus (CS)-Stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after pairing with the US
-Computer reboot at same time as asking ” Do you want and altoid?” Conditioned response (CR)-Learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
-Hear the computer reboot sound – test mouth & put out handOperant ConditioningWe learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment. Behaviors are preceded by _______ and followed by _______.-Antecedents
-Consequences________ can be altered by changes in the antecedents, consequences, or both. Operant behaviorWhat is an example of operant conditioning? When sheldon trains penny from the big bang theoryReinforcementAn event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response. Positive Reinforcement-Increases a behavior by adding a desired consequence
-Compliments, praiseNegative Reinforcement-Increases a behavior by taking away an undesired consequence
-Seat belt buzzer, pick up clothes to stop naggingPunishmentAn event that decreases the behavior that it follows. Presentation Punishment-Suppresses a behavior by adding an undesired consequence
-Yelling, glareRemoval Punishment-Suppresses a behavior by removing a desired consequence
-Time-outExtinctionWhen a previously reinforced behavior decreases in frequency and eventually ceases altogether because reinforcement is withheldAn example of extinctionIgnoring a child who yells out answersWhat is most effective when combined with other consequences? ExtinctionReinforcement Schedules-Interval
-RatioInterval SchedulesBased on amount of time that passes between reinforcersExamples of interval schedules-Weekly quiz (fixed)
-Pop quiz (variable)Ratio SchedulesBased on number of responses given between reinforcersExamples of ratio schedules-Read five books get a reward (fixed)
-Slot machines (variable)CueAn antecedent stimulus just before a particular behavior occursPrompt-An additional cue following the first one
-Must occur immediately
-Fade use of prompt quickly, so students don’t become dependent on it instead of the cue. Positive PracticePractice correct behavior as soon and as much as possible. Premack PrincipleHigh-frequency behavior (a preferred activity) can be an effective reinforcer for a low-frequency behavior (a less-preferred activity. Shaping-Involves reinforcing progress instead of waiting for perfection
-Useful for building complex skills, working toward difficult goals, and increasing persistence, endurance, accuracy, or speedUsing Punishmentdoes not lead to any positive behavior or compassion for others, and it may interfere with developing caring relationships with student. First, carry out the _______ and _____ the undesirable behavior-Punishment
-SuppressSecond, make clear what the student should be doing instead and _______ for those _____ actions.-Positive reinforcement
-DesirableHandling Undesirable Behaviors-Negative Reinforcement
-Response Cost
-Social IsolationReprimands-Criticisms for misbehavior
-Soft, calm, and privateResponse Cost-Punishment by loss of reinforcers
-Logical consequencesSocial IsolationIsolated monkeys had a lack of interaction and socialization with normal, young monkeys hampered their social developmentGroup ConsequencesBasing reinforcement for the whole class on the behavior of the whole classContingency ContractsThe teacher draws up an individual contract with each student, describing exactly what the student must do to earn a particular privilege or reward and what will taken away if they do not do what the contract says. Token ProgramsStudents earn tokens (points, checks, holes punched in a card, chips, etc.) for both academic work and positive classroom behavior. If you wanted to increase the probability of a particular behavior, such as completing an assignment within a time limit, being repeated you wouldtell students how pleased you are after they have completed one of your assignments on time. Ms. Broom ignores Sam who frequently yells out in class. Within a week, Sam is no longer yelling out. This is an example ofExtinctionA teacher who checks a student’s progress on math homework every 5 minutes is using a ________ schedule of reinforcement. Fixed intervalTo discourage students from waiting until the last minute to study for exams, teachers should schedule exams atdifferent intervals and not announce when each exam will be given. Which of the following statements best reflects the last 30 years of research findings on the effect of computer-based instruction (CBI)? CBI is best used with certain types of students, with certain materials, and for certain types of outcomes. A teacher who reinforces a child every time he correctly finishes a step in his long-division problem until he finishes the problem is demonstratingShapingA formal agreement where a teacher and a student determine a mutually-agreed on behavior and a mutually-agreed on reinforcement is an example of acontingency contract. Research has shown that time-out works best with which type of child? One who is aggressivePlacing a student who disrupts the classroom to get attention in the hallway is an example ofTime-outA student who has just been praised for learning that the plural of goose is geese says that he saw a train that had three cabeese. Behavioral theorists would classify this as an example ofGeneralizationGiving a student a sticker for every 10 questions he answers correctly is an example of a ________ schedule of reinforcement. Fixed Ratio” Complete these problems, and you can go out to recess.” This is an example ofPremack principle. Mr. April was so impressed with Nancy’s report on the effects of acid rain that he graded it A+ and posted it on the classroom bulletin board. Mr. April’s action best illustrates which of the following operant conditioning principles? Insufficient information to determine

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