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Ap psychology chapter 5

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learningA relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation. classical conditioningA type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another. ONAP PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 5 SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder NowstimulusAny event or object in the environment to which an organism responds. unconditioned response (UR)A response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning. unconditioned stimulus (US)A stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning. conditioned stimulus (CS)A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response. conditioned response (CR)The learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus. higher-order conditioningConditioning that occurs when conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals. extinctionIn classical conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. spontaneous recovertyThe reappearance of an extinguished response (in a weaker form) when an organism is exposed to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period. generalizationIn classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus. discriminationThe learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli. biological predispositionGenetically programmed tendencies to acquire classically conditioned fear responses to potentially life-threatening stimuli. taste aversionThe intense dislike and/or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort. law of effectOne of Thorndike’s laws of learning, which states that the consequence, or effect, of a response will determine whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthened or weakened. operant conditioningA type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated so as to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response. operantA voluntary behavior that accidentally brings about a consequence. reinforcerAnything that follows a response and strengthens it or increases the probability that it will occur. shapingAn operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response, thereby gradually guiding the responses toward the ultimate goal. Skinner boxA soundproof chamber with a device for delivering food to an animal subject; used in operant conditioning experiments. successive approximationsA series of gradual steps, each of which is more than similar to the final desired response. extinctionIn operant conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of the withholding of reinforcement. generalizationIn operant conditioning, the tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced. reinforcementAny event that follows a response and strengthens or increases the probability that the response will be repeated. positive reinforcementAny pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated. negative reinforcementThe termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, which increases the probability that the response will be repeated. primary reinforcerA reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning. secondary reinforcerA reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers. schedule of reinforcementA systematic process for administering reinforcement. fixed-ratio (FR) scheduleA schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct, nonreinforced responses. variable-ratio (VR) scheduleA schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a varying number of non-reinforced responses, based on an average ratio. partial reinforcement effectThe typical outcome of a variable ratio of reinforcement in which a slow rate of initial learning is coupled with resistance to extinction. fixed-interval (FI) scheduleA schedule in which a reinforcer is given following the first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed. variable-interval (VI) scheduleA schedule in which a reinforcer is given after the first correct response that follows a varying time of nonreinforcement, based on an average time. punishmentThe removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a response. positive punishmentA decrease in behavior that results from an added consequence. negative punishmentA decrease in behavior that results from a removed consequence. cognitive processesMental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations, and forming mental representations. insightThe sudden realization of the relationship between elements in a problem situation, which makes the solution apparent. latent learningLearning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so. cognitive mapA mental representation of a spatial arrangement as a maze.

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